literal meaning "limit", or "restriction") is the wordoften used in Islamic literature for the bounds of acceptable behaviour and thepunishments for serious crimes.•In Islamic law or
, Hudud usually refers to the class of punishments that arefixed for certain crimes that are considered to be "claims of God."•Therefore the sovereign was held to have a responsibility to punish them. All other offenses were defined as "claims of [His] servants," and responsibility for prosecutionrested on the victim. This includes murder, which was treated as a private disputebetween the murderer and the victim's heirs. The heirs had the right to compensationand to demand execution of the murderer, but they could also choose to forgive.Hudud offenses include1)Drinking alcohol (sharb al-khamr)2)Theft (sariqa)3)Highway robbery (qat' al-tariq)4)Illegal sexual intercourse (zina')5)False accusation of zina' (qadhf)6)Rebellion against the ruler 7)Apostasy (irtidād or ridda) - includes blasphemy.•The Shafi'i school of Islamic jurisprudence does not include highway robbery.•The Hanafi school does not include rebellion and heresy.•Except for drinking alcohol, punishments for all Hudud crimes are specified in theQuran or Hadith: stoning-Hadith, amputation and flogging.