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linux can ban

linux can ban

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Published by: api-19584367 on Nov 28, 2009
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03/18/2014

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Ph\u1ea7n I: C\u00e1c Kh\u00e1i Ni\u1ec7m C\u0103n B\u1ea3n
I. Gi\u1edbi thi\u1ec7u h\u1ec7 \u0111i\u1ec1u h\u00e0nh Linux:
1. Linux l\u00e0 g\u00ec?
Linux l\u00e0 h\u1ec7 \u0111i\u1ec1u h\u00e0nh. V\u1ec1 m\u1eb7t nguy\u00ean t\u1eafc h\u1ec7 \u0111i\u1ec1u h\u00e0nh c\u0169ng l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t software;
nh\u01b0ng \u0111\u00e2y l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t software \u0111\u1eb7c bi\u1ec7t \u2013 \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c d\u00f9ng \u0111\u1ec3 qu\u1ea3n l\u00fd, \u0111i\u1ec1u ph\u1ed1i c\u00e1c t\u00e0i
nguy\u00ean (resource) c\u1ee7a h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng (bao g\u1ed3m c\u1ea3 hardware v\u00e0 c\u00e1c software kh\u00e1c).
Linux c\u00f2n \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c g\u1ecdi l\u00e0 Open Source Unix (OSU), Unix-like Kernel, clone of the
UNIX operating system.
Linux do Linus Torvalds, m\u1ed9t sinh vi\u00ean t\u1ea1i tr\u01b0\u1eddng \u0110\u1ea1i H\u1ecdc\u1edf Helsinki (Ph\u1ea7n Lan)
ph\u00e1t tri\u1ec3n d\u1ef1a tr\u00ean h\u1ec7 \u0111i\u1ec1u h\u00e0nh Minix, m\u1ed9t h\u1ec7 \u0111i\u1ec1u h\u00e0nh c\u00f3 c\u1ea5u tr\u00fac t\u01b0\u01a1ng t\u1ef1
Unix v\u1edbi c\u00e1c ch\u1ee9c n\u0103ng t\u1ed1i thi\u1ec3u \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c d\u00f9ng trong d\u1ea1y h\u1ecdc.
Hi\u1ec7n nay, Linux l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t h\u1ec7 \u0111i\u1ec1u h\u00e0nh v\u1edbi m\u00e3 ngu\u1ed3n m\u1edf (Open Source) v\u00e0 mi\u1ec5n ph\u00ed
(free) d\u01b0\u1edbi b\u1ea3n quy\u1ec1n c\u1ee7a t\u1ed5 ch\u1ee9c GNU (Gnu\u2019s Not Unix).
Kh\u1edfi \u0111\u1ea7u, Linux \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c thi\u1ebft k\u1ebf \u0111\u1ec3 ho\u1ea1t \u0111\u1ed9ng tr\u00ean n\u1ec1n t\u1ea3ng c\u1ee7a ki\u1ebfn tr\u00fac i386
Intel v\u1edbi kh\u1ea3 n\u0103ng \u0111a t\u00e1c v\u1ee5 (multitasking). Tuy nhi\u00ean ng\u00e0y nay, Linux \u0111\u00e3 c\u00f3 c\u00e1c
phi\u00ean b\u1ea3n tr\u00ean c\u00e1c h\u1ecd chip kh\u00e1c ch\u1eb3ng h\u1ea1n nh\u01b0 chip Alpha.
Linux c\u00f3 nguy\u00ean l\u00fd ho\u1ea1t \u0111\u1ed9ng t\u01b0\u01a1ng t\u1ef1 h\u1ec7 \u0111i\u1ec1u h\u00e0nh Unix (Unix-like). M\u1eb7c d\u00f9
Linux kh\u00f4ng ph\u1ea3i l\u00e0 Unix nh\u01b0ng ng\u01b0\u1eddi ta v\u1eabn xem Linux nh\u01b0 l\u00e0 phi\u00ean b\u1ea3n Unix tr\u00ean
PC (PC version of Unix OS).
Do l\u00e0 Unix-like; Linux c\u00f3 \u0111\u1ea7y \u0111\u1ee7 t\u1ea5t c\u1ea3 c\u00e1c \u0111\u1eb7c t\u00ednh c\u1ee7a Unix (fully
functional). Ngo\u00e0i ra n\u00f3 c\u00f2n h\u1ed7 tr\u1ee3 th\u00eam m\u1ed9t s\u1ed1 t\u00ednh n\u0103ng m\u00e0 tr\u00ean Unix kh\u00f4ng c\u00f3,
nh\u01b0 long file name (t\u00ean file c\u00f3 k\u00fd t\u1ef1 space \u201c \u201d).
Hi\u1ec7n t\u1ea1i c\u00f3 nhi\u1ec1u h\u00e3ng, nhi\u1ec1u t\u1ed5 ch\u1ee9c, nhi\u1ec1u nh\u00f3m kh\u00e1c nhau c\u00f9ng ph\u00e1t tri\u1ec3n
Linux. T\u1ea5t c\u1ea3 c\u00e1c phi\u00ean b\u1ea3n (release) Linux \u0111\u1ec1u c\u00f3 chung ph\u1ea7n kernel (ph\u1ea7n nh\u00e2n
c\u1ee7a h\u1ec7 \u0111i\u1ec1u h\u00e0nh) v\u00e0 h\u1ea7u h\u1ebft c\u00e1c t\u00ednh n\u0103ng \u0111\u1eb7c tr\u01b0ng, tuy nhi\u00ean c\u00e1c tool (c\u00f4ng
c\u1ee5) v\u00e0 utility (ti\u1ec7n \u00edch) c\u00f3 \u0111\u00f4i ch\u00fat d\u1ecb bi\u1ec7t.
C\u00f3 r\u1ea5t nhi\u1ec1u c\u00e1c\u1ee9ng d\u1ee5ng cho Linux, tuy nhi\u00ean h\u1ea7u h\u1ebft c\u00e1c\u1ee9ng d\u1ee5ng cho Linux
hi\u1ec7n c\u00f3 \u0111\u1ec1u l\u00e0 c\u00e1c\u1ee9ng d\u1ee5ng mang t\u00ednh chuy\u00ean d\u1ee5ng. \u0110\u1ec3 \u0111\u01b0a Linux v\u00e0o t\u1eebng gia
\u0111\u00ecnh, c\u00e1c t\u1ed5 ch\u1ee9c, c\u00e1c h\u00e3ng \u0111ang c\u1ed1 g\u1eafng ph\u00e1t tri\u1ec3n c\u00e1c\u1ee9ng d\u1ee5ng mang t\u00ednh ph\u1ed5
c\u1eadp tr\u00ean Linux ch\u1eb3ng h\u1ea1n h\u00e3ng SUN \u0111\u01b0a ra phi\u00ean b\u1ea3n Star Office t\u01b0\u01a1ng t\u1ef1 nh\u01b0 MS
Office \u2013 v\u00e0 c\u0169ng t\u01b0\u01a1ng th\u00edch v\u1edbi MS Office - cho nh\u1eefng ng\u01b0\u1eddi s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng Linux\u1edf gia
\u0111\u00ecnh, v\u0103n ph\u00f2ng.
H\u00e3ng Borland (nay l\u00e0 h\u00e3ng Inprise) \u0111ang ph\u00e1t tri\u1ec3n m\u1ed9t d\u1ef1 \u00e1n c\u00f3 t\u00ean l\u00e0 KyLix,
nh\u1eb1m \u0111\u01b0a ra m\u1ed9t m\u00f4i tr\u01b0\u1eddng l\u1eadp tr\u00ecnh c\u1ea5p cao tr\u00ean Linux, \u0111\u1ed3ng th\u1eddi c\u00e1c\u1ee9ng d\u1ee5ng
tr\u00ean Windows \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c vi\u1ebft b\u1eb1ng Delphi/C++Builder s\u1ebd d\u1ec5 d\u00e0ng compile (bi\u00ean d\u1ecbch) l\u1ea1i
d\u01b0\u1edbi Linux b\u1eb1ng KyLix. Hi\u1ec7n t\u1ea1i Kylix \u0111\u00e3 c\u00f3 phi\u00ean b\u1ea3n th\u1eed nghi\u1ec7m (beta).
D\u1ef1 \u00e1n n\u00e0y h\u1ee9a h\u1eb9n m\u1ed9t lo\u1ea1t c\u00e1c\u1ee9ng d\u1ee5ng th\u00f4ng th\u01b0\u1eddng \u0111\u00e3 c\u00f3 tr\u00ean MS Windows s\u1ebd
mau ch\u00f3ng \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c chuy\u1ec3n sang Linux, v\u00e0 \u0111i\u1ec1u n\u00e0y s\u1ebd gi\u00fap cho h\u1ec7 \u0111i\u1ec1u h\u00e0nh Linux d\u1ec5
d\u00e0ng th\u00e2m nh\u1eadp v\u00e0o th\u1ecb tr\u01b0\u1eddng PC nhanh ch\u00f3ng h\u01a1n.
C\u00e1c\u1ee9ng d\u1ee5ng \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c vi\u1ebft tr\u00ean Linux \u0111\u1ec1u c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 ho\u1ea1t \u0111\u1ed9ng tr\u00ean c\u00e1c h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng UNIX
(c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 c\u1ea7n ph\u1ea3i compile l\u1ea1i).
C\u00e1c release hi\u1ec7n nay g\u1ed3m c\u00f3:
RedHat Linux:
Hi\u1ec7n \u0111\u00e3 c\u00f3 version (\u1ea5n b\u1ea3n) 7.0; l\u00e0 phi\u00ean b\u1ea3n kh\u00e1 ph\u1ed5 bi\u1ebfn. Cung c\u1ea5p kh\u00e1 nhi\u1ec1u

tool v\u00e0 utility \u0111\u1ec3 h\u1ed7 tr\u1ee3 user (ng\u01b0\u1eddi s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng) t\u1eeb c\u00e1c thao t\u00e1c setup (c\u00e0i \u0111\u1eb7t)
\u0111\u1ebfn config (c\u1ea5u h\u00ecnh) h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng.
Mandrake Linux:
M\u1ed9t d\u00f2ng kh\u00e1c tho\u00e1t thai t\u1eeb RedHat Linux, t\u01b0\u01a1ng th\u00edch ho\u00e0n to\u00e0n v\u1edbi RedHat. Hi\u1ec7n
c\u00f3 t\u1edbi version 7.1
Slackware Linux:
\u0110\u00e2y l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t trong phi\u00ean b\u1ea3n Linux l\u00e2u \u0111\u1eddi. H\u1ed7 tr\u1ee3 c\u00e1c d\u1ecbch v\u1ee5 m\u1ea1ng r\u1ea5t m\u1ea1nh, tuy
nhi\u00ean vi\u1ec7c setup v\u00e0 config \u0111\u00f2i h\u1ecfi user c\u00f3 ki\u1ebfn th\u1ee9c t\u1ed1t v\u1ec1 h\u1ec7 \u0111i\u1ec1u h\u00e0nh n\u00e0y.
Hi\u1ec7n c\u00f3 version 7.0
S.u.S.E. Linux:
Do h\u00e3ng S.u.S.E (\u0110\u1ee9c) ph\u00e1t h\u00e0nh, kh\u00e1 ph\u1ed5 bi\u1ebfn t\u1ea1i \u00c2u ch\u00e2u, nh\u01b0ng kh\u00f4ng \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c ph\u1ed5
bi\u1ebfn t\u1ea1i c\u00e1c n\u01b0\u1edbc kh\u00e1c. C\u00f3 c\u00e1c c\u00f4ng c\u1ee5 ri\u00eang \u0111\u1ec3 h\u1ed7 tr\u1ee3 setup v\u00e0 config t\u01b0\u01a1ng \u0111\u1ed1i
d\u1ec5 s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng. Hi\u1ec7n \u0111ang c\u00f3 \u0111\u1ebfn version 6.3
Free BSD Linux:
\u0110\u01b0\u1ee3c ph\u00e1t tri\u1ec3n b\u1edfi \u0110\u1ea1i H\u1ecdc Berkeley, \u0111\u00e2y kh\u00f4ng ph\u1ea3i l\u00e0 phi\u00ean b\u1ea3n th\u01b0\u01a1ng m\u1ea1i, do
v\u1eady \u00edt \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c ph\u1ed5 bi\u1ebfn. C\u00f3 r\u1ea5t nhi\u1ec1u ti\u1ec7n \u00edch d\u00e0nh cho vi\u1ec7c ph\u00e1t tri\u1ec3n h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng v\u00e0
l\u1eadp tr\u00ecnh. H\u1ed7 tr\u1ee3 \u0111\u1ea7y \u0111\u1ee7 c\u00e1c shell tr\u00ean Unix. Hi\u1ec7n c\u00f3 version 2.2
Corel Linux:
Ph\u00e1t tri\u1ec3n b\u1edfi h\u00e3ng Corel, d\u1ec5 setup, c\u00f3 graphic interface (giao di\u1ec7n \u0111\u1ed3 h\u1ecda) kh\u00e1
gi\u1ed1ng Windows NT k\u1ec3 c\u00e1c tool v\u00e0 utility. Tuy nhi\u00ean c\u00e1c config tool ch\u01b0a ho\u1ea1t
\u0111\u1ed9ng t\u1ed1t. Hi\u1ec7n c\u00f3 \u0111\u1ebfn version 1.0
Open Linux:
Do h\u00e3ng Caldera ph\u00e1t tri\u1ec3n, d\u1ec5 c\u00e0i \u0111\u1eb7t c\u0169ng nh\u01b0 s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng. Giao di\u1ec7n KDE. Th\u00edch
h\u1ee3p cho ng\u01b0\u1eddi s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng t\u1ea1i gia \u0111\u00ecnh. Hi\u1ec7n \u0111ang c\u00f3 version 2.3
X Linux:
H\u1ed7 tr\u1ee3 \u0111a ng\u00f4n ng\u1eef. T\u01b0\u01a1ng th\u00edch v\u1edbi RedHat. B\u1ed9 c\u00f4ng c\u1ee5 kh\u00f4ng l\u1ea5y g\u00ec l\u00e0m \u0111\u1eb7c s\u1eafc.
Tuy nhi\u00ean k\u00e8m theo n\u00f3 c\u00f3 kh\u00e1 nhi\u1ec1u\u1ee9ng d\u1ee5ng. Hi\u1ec7n c\u00f3 version 1.0
V\u00e0 c\u00f2n r\u1ea5t nhi\u1ec1u release kh\u00e1c nh\u01b0 Turbo Linux, Linux PPC, Debian Linux,
Infomagic Linux, Softlanding Linux System Release (SLS) v.v....
C\u00e1c th\u00f4ng tin v\u00e0 t\u00e0i nguy\u00ean (resource) c\u1ee7a Linux c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 t\u00ecm th\u1ea5y\u1edf kh\u1eafp n\u01a1i tr\u00ean
Internet v\u00e0 h\u1ea7u h\u1ebft \u0111\u1ec1u free. Th\u00eam v\u00e0o \u0111\u00f3 c\u00f3 kh\u00e1 nhi\u1ec1u c\u00e1c tr\u00ecnh\u1ee9ng d\u1ee5ng c\u0169ng
nh\u01b0 ti\u1ec7n \u00edch d\u00e0nh cho Linux d\u1ec5 d\u00e0ng \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c t\u00ecm th\u1ea5y tr\u00ean Internet.
2. C\u00e1c t\u00ednh n\u0103ng & service c\u01a1 b\u1ea3n c\u1ee7a Linux:
Nh\u01b0 \u0111\u00e3 tr\u00ecnh b\u00e0y, Linux l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t h\u1ec7 \u0111i\u1ec1u h\u00e0nh v\u1edbi \u0111\u1ea7y \u0111\u1ee7 c\u00e1c t\u00ednh n\u0103ng c\u1ee7a Unix.
V\u00ec th\u1ebf n\u00f3 c\u00f3 kh\u1ea3 n\u0103ng \u0111\u00f3ng vai tr\u00f2 c\u1ee7a m\u1ed9t Internet/Intranet Server (Web Server,
Ftp Server, Mail Server, DNS Server, v.v....), Database Server, File Server
v.v... ho\u1eb7c l\u00e0m vi\u1ec7c nh\u01b0 m\u1ed9t Unix workstation (m\u00e1y tr\u1ea1m Unix).
Nh\u01b0 v\u1eady, Linux l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t h\u1ec7 \u0111i\u1ec1u h\u00e0nh m\u1ea1ng v\u1edbi \u0111\u1ea7y \u0111\u1ee7 c\u00e1c t\u00ednh n\u0103ng c\u1ee7a n\u00f3.
C\u0169ng nh\u01b0 Unix, Linux c\u0169ng tu\u00e2n theo chu\u1ea9n POSIX (Portable Operating System
Interface for Computer Enviroment) m\u1eb7c d\u00f9 n\u00f3 v\u1eabn ch\u01b0a \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c t\u1ed5 ch\u1ee9c n\u00e0y c\u00f4ng
nh\u1eadn.
C\u00e1c service \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c cung c\u1ea5p b\u1edfi Linux bao g\u1ed3m h\u1ea7u h\u1ebft c\u00e1c service c\u1ee7a Unix nh\u01b0:
UUCP (Unix to Unix Copy Protocol): Giao th\u1ee9c h\u1ed7 tr\u1ee3 service truy\u1ec1n th\u00f4ng gi\u1eefa
c\u00e1c host Unix.

TCP/IP IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol): Giao th\u1ee9c cung c\u1ea5p
service truy\u1ec1n th\u00f4ng tr\u00ean m\u1ea1ng Internet.
X Protocol: Giao th\u1ee9c \u0111\u1ec3 x\u1eed l\u00fd GUI (Graphics User Interface) tr\u00ean X Window.
PPP: (Point to Point Protocol): Giao th\u1ee9c d\u00f9ng \u0111\u1ec3 truy\u1ec1n th\u00f4ng tr\u1ef1c ti\u1ebfp gi\u1eefa
hai m\u00e1y.
Samba: Giao th\u1ee9c cung c\u1ea5p File service t\u01b0\u01a1ng t\u1ef1 File Service c\u1ee7a Windows NT cho
ph\u00e9p c\u00e1c windows client truy xu\u1ea5t h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng file tr\u00ean Linux Server.
DNS (Domain Name Service): D\u1ecbch v\u1ee5 qu\u1ea3n l\u00fd t\u00ean host tr\u00ean m\u1ea1ng Internet/Intranet.
v.v....
TCP/IP l\u00e0 h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng d\u1ecbch v\u1ee5 m\u1ea1ng ch\u00ednh c\u1ee7a Linux.
Tuy nhi\u00ean c\u00e1c service tr\u00ean ch\u1ec9 l\u00e0 c\u00e1c service t\u00f9y ch\u1ecdn, ngh\u0129a l\u00e0 h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng c\u00f3 th\u1ec3
c\u00f3 hay kh\u00f4ng c\u00f3 c\u00e1c service tr\u00ean v\u1eabn ho\u1ea1t \u0111\u1ed9ng t\u1ed1t. C\u00e1c service n\u00e0y ch\u1ec9 l\u00e0m cho
Unix/Linux t\u0103ng th\u00eam kh\u1ea3 n\u0103ng v\u00e0 s\u1ee9c m\u1ea1nh c\u1ee7a m\u00ecnh m\u00e0 th\u00f4i.
Ch\u00fang ta s\u1ebd xem x\u00e9t chi ti\u1ebft t\u1eebng service tr\u00ean\u1edf trong c\u00e1c ph\u1ea7n sau.
C\u00f2n c\u00e1c service \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c m\u00f4 t\u1ea3 sau \u0111\u00e2y l\u00e0 c\u00e1c service quan tr\u1ecdng c\u1ee7a Unix/Linux.
\u0110i\u1ec1u \u0111\u00f3 c\u00f3 ngh\u0129a l\u00e0 n\u1ebfu kh\u00f4ng c\u00f3 c\u00e1c service n\u00e0y, h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 kh\u00f4ng ho\u1ea1t
\u0111\u1ed9ng \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c.
Do v\u1eady, m\u1ed9t s\u1ed1 trong ch\u00fang s\u1ebd \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c c\u00e0i \u0111\u1eb7t m\u1ed9t c\u00e1ch t\u1ef1 \u0111\u1ed9ng khi ch\u00fang ta thi\u1ebft
l\u1eadp m\u1ed9t h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng Unix/Linux.
a. Init:
D\u1ecbch v\u1ee5 \u0111\u01a1n l\u1ebb quan tr\u1ecdng nh\u1ea5t trong h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng Unix/Linux l\u00e0 init. N\u00f3 \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c kh\u1edfi
\u0111\u1ed9ng nh\u01b0 l\u00e0 ti\u1ebfn tr\u00ecnh \u0111\u1ea7u ti\u00ean trong m\u1ecdi h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng Unix/Linux. \u0110\u00e2y l\u00e0 ti\u1ebfn
tr\u00ecnh d\u00f9ng \u0111\u1ec3 kh\u1edfi \u0111\u1ed9ng (boot) h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng. N\u00f3 s\u1ebd ki\u1ec3m tra v\u00e0 mount filesystems v\u00e0o
h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng, kh\u1edfi \u0111\u1ed9ng c\u00e1c daemon.
N\u00f3 cung c\u1ea5p c\u00e1c kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m nh\u01b0 single user mode (ch\u1ebf \u0111\u1ed9 ho\u1ea1t \u0111\u1ed9ng nh\u01b0 h\u1ec7 ng\u01b0\u1eddi
d\u00f9ng \u0111\u01a1n l\u1ebb), multiuser mode (ch\u1ebf \u0111\u1ed9 \u0111a ng\u01b0\u1eddi d\u00f9ng). M\u1ed9t s\u1ed1 t\u00e0i li\u1ec7u c\u00f2n g\u1ecdi l\u00e0
run level (c\u1ea5p \u0111\u1ed9 ho\u1ea1t \u0111\u1ed9ng).
Khi h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng k\u1ebft th\u00fac ho\u1ea1t \u0111\u1ed9ng (shutdown), init s\u1ebd d\u1ecdn d\u1eb9p (d\u1eebng m\u1ecdi tri\u1ebfn
tr\u00ecnh \u0111ang ho\u1ea1t \u0111\u1ed9ng, umount filesystems, v.v...).
* init 0: Shutdown h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng (halt).
* init 1: Admin single user mode: ch\u1ec9 c\u00f3 root account c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 login\u1edf mode n\u00e0y.
* init 2: Multi user mode, kh\u00f4ng c\u00f3 h\u1ed7 tr\u1ee3 NFS.
* init 3: Multi user, c\u00f3 h\u1ed7 tr\u1ee3 NFS: cho ph\u00e9p chia s\u1ebb h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng file v\u1edbi c\u00e1c h\u1ec7
th\u1ed1ng kh\u00e1c trong m\u1ea1ng.
* int 4: Kh\u00f4ng d\u00f9ng.
* int 5: Multi user, h\u1ed7 tr\u1ee3 graphic mode (X11)
* init 6: reboot (t\u00e1i kh\u1edfi \u0111\u1ed9ng) h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng.
L\u01b0u \u00fd: kh\u00f4ng \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c thi\u1ebft l\u1eadp m\u1eb7c \u0111\u1ecbnh (default)\u1edf ch\u1ebf \u0111\u1ed9 n\u00e0y.
* s (ho\u1eb7c S): Single user, s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng nh\u01b0 h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng c\u00e1 nh\u00e2n ri\u00eang bi\u1ec7t.
(T\u1ea1i m\u1ed9t th\u1eddi \u0111i\u1ec3m ch\u1ec9 c\u00f3 m\u1ed9t v\u00e0 ch\u1ec9 m\u1ed9t user c\u00f3 quy\u1ec1n \u0111\u0103ng nh\u1eadp h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng).
b. Login:
D\u1ecbch v\u1ee5 n\u00e0y cho ph\u00e9p user login (\u0111\u0103ng nh\u1eadp) v\u00e0o h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng v\u00e0 khai th\u00e1c c\u00e1c t\u00e0i
nguy\u00ean c\u1ee7a h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng \u2013 trong quy\u1ec1n h\u1ea1n m\u00e0 user n\u00e0y \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c c\u1ea5p.
c. Graphic User Interface (GUI):

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