Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword
Like this
0Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
541 Energy and Respiration

541 Energy and Respiration

Ratings: (0)|Views: 0 |Likes:
Published by anon_135776293

More info:

Published by: anon_135776293 on Jul 18, 2014
Copyright:Traditional Copyright: All rights reserved

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

07/18/2014

pdf

text

original

 
A2 Biology Module 2804: Central Concepts 1
Module 2804: Central Concepts
5.4.1 Energy and Respiration
 
(a) outline the need for energy in living organisms as illustrated by anabolic reactions, active transport, movement and the maintenance of body temperature. Energy needed to perform work in living organisms:
 Anabolic reactions: making big molecules from small ones
 Active transport: need energy as against concentration gradient
 Movement: mechanical work
 Maintenance of body temperature: thermal energy
(b) describe the structure of ATP as a phosphorylated nucleotide. (c) describe the universal role of ATP as the energy currency in all living organisms. ATP made, moved around and used in most cells:
 
 ATP produced using energy from respiration reactions
 Breaks down to release energy when required ATP
 ADP + P
i
+ energy
 It is an immediate source of energy released in small ‘packets’
 Rapid turnover of ATP with anabolic and catabolic processes
 Uses eg. active transport/Na pump/cell division/phosphorylation
(d) explain that the synthesis of ATP is associated with the electron transport chain on the membranes of the mitochondrion.
 Any reduced NAD/FAD formed during glycolysis/link reaction/krebs cycle is used in oxidative phosphorylation (electron transport chain) to generate ATP across the inner membrane of the mitochondrion X: Adenine (base) Y: Ribose (pentose sugar) P: Phosphate
 
A2 Biology Module 2804: Central Concepts 2 (e) outline glycolysis as phosphorylation of glucose and the subsequent splitting of hexose phosphate (6C) into two triose phosphate molecules which are then further oxidised with a small yield of ATP and reduced NAD. (f) explain that, when oxygen is available, pyruvate is converted into acetyl (2C) coenzyme A, which then combines with oxaloacetate (4C) to form citrate (6C).
Pyruvate enters the mitochondrion (actively using ATP) across the membranes using protein carriers (glucose cannot enter mitochondrion)
The link reaction occurs in the mitochondrial matrix:
 
 Pyruvate + CoA + NAD
 Acetyl CoA + CO
2
 + reduced NAD
 This reaction uses decarboxylation to remove C as CO
2
 
 Also uses dehydrogenation to remove H to reduce NAD
(g) outline the Krebs cycle, explaining that citrate is reconverted to oxaloacetate in a series of small steps in the matrix of the mitochondrion. (
No
further details are required.) The Krebs cycle is a series of steps catalysed by enzymes in the matrix:
 
 2C Acetyl CoA enters the cycle and accepted by 4C oxaloacetate to form 6C Citrate as the first intermediate
 Cycle turns twice for each original glucose molecule (2 x pyruvate etc)
 A series of reactions cycle back to 4C oxaloacetate
 1 x ATP is produced directly by phosphorylation of ADP
 Decarboxylation as 2 x C atoms are released in 2 x CO
2
 molecules
 Dehydrogenation as 4 pairs of H atoms are removed
 3 x NAD and 1 x FAD act as hydrogen acceptors and become reduced
 H in reduced NAD/FAD will be released in oxidative phosphorylation
 Amino acids and fatty acids can be broken down and fed into cycle
 Intermediates of the cycle can form other molecules Glucose (6C hexose)
 
 (ATP
 ADP)
 Hexose Phosphate (6C)
 
 (ATP
 ADP)
 2 x Triose Phosphate (3C)
 
 (4 x ADP
 ATP)
 (2 x NAD
reduced NAD)
 2 x Pyruvate
Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm:
 
 ATP is used in the first two steps to phosphorylate glucose to hexose bisphosphate
 ATP is made later in glycolysis
 Reduced NAD (NADH
2
) is made as H is removed from triose phosphate
 Net gain from glycolysis: 2 x ATP 2 x reduced NAD
 
A2 Biology Module 2804: Central Concepts 3 (h) explain that these processes involve decarboxylation and dehydrogenation, and describe the role of NAD. Decarboxylation:
Removal of a carbon from a molecule forming CO
2
 
Dehydrogenation:
 Removal of hydrogen
NAD:
 Can accept hydrogen (reversible) to form reduced NAD (NADH
2
)
(i) outline the process of oxidative phosphorylation, including the role of oxygen. (No details of the carriers are required.) Oxidative phosphorylation occurs at the inner mitochondrial membrane:
 
 Dehydrogenase enzymes remove the hydrogen from reduced NAD/FAD and split it into H
+
(proton) and e
-
(electron)
 e
-
 flow through the cytochrome carriers (redox reactions) releasing energy at each lower energy level
 H
+
 pumped across inner membrane (proton pump) into inter membrane space creating an electrochemical gradient (chemiosmosis)
 H
+
 diffuse back through protein channels with stalked particles containing  ATP synthase forming ATP from ADP + P
i
 
 O
2
 acts as the final H
+
 and e
-
 acceptor forming H
2
O
(j) explain the production of a small yield of ATP from anaerobic respiration and the formation of ethanol in yeast and lactate in mammals.
Under anaerobic conditions the reduced NAD cannot be oxidized using oxygen. But, without it being oxidized, glycolysis will stop and no ATP formed. Need to ‘recycle’ the reduced NAD back to NAD for glycolysis to continue.
Oxidation of NAD in muscle tissue:
 H from reduced NAD (NADH
2
) combines with pyruvate (3C) to form lactate (3C)
 Enzyme is lactate dehydrogenase Pyruvate
 
 (Reduced NAD
 NAD)
 Lactate
Oxidation of NAD in yeast:
 
 Pyruvate (3C) converted first to ethanal (2C) with the loss of CO
2
 (decarboxylation)
 H from reduced NAD (NADH
2
) combines with ethanal (2C) to form ethanol (2C)
 Enzyme is alcohol dehydrogenase Pyruvate
 
 (
CO
2
)
 Ethanal
 
 (Reduced NAD
 NAD)
 Ethanol

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->