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Ahmad ibn Taymiyya (661-728)_GF HADDAD

Ahmad ibn Taymiyya (661-728)_GF HADDAD

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Ahmad ibn Taymiyya (661-728)
1 of 31
4/24/2007 9:33 PM
hadith fiqh Q
nas\u00eeha naw\u00e2fil tasawwuf dhikr
pdf_files__ texts
references invitation english fran\u00e7ais deutsch svenska espa\u00f1ol italiano other lang. cont
a c t
He Was Most ly Self-Taught
His Principal St udent s
Divided Opinions Concerning
Al-Dhahab\u00ee's Synopsis of His
"He was very learned but
lacked int elligence"
Fatw\u00e2 At tribut ing Direct ion
to All\u00e2h Most High
His Several Imprisonm ent s
His Equivocat ions Under
Int errogat ion
Al-T.\u00fbf\u00ee's Summ ary of the
Charges Brought Against
His Former Admirat ion of
Ibn ` Ar ab\u00ee
His S.\u00fbfi Affiliat ion With the
Q\u00e2dir\u00ee T.ar\u00eeqa

His Innov at ive Nullification
of Multiple Divorce
His Innov at ive Prohibition of

Tr av el to Visit the Holy
Pr ophet
The H.anbal\u00ee Reject ion of His
Shay kh al-Isl\u00e2m al-Subk\u00ee's
Reject ion of His Fatwa
Shaykh al-Isl\u00e2m al-Zayn
al-` Ir\u00e2q\u00ee's Reject ion of His
Shay kh al-Isl\u00e2m Ibn H.aj ar's

Reject ion of His Fatwa
H.\u00e2fiz. al-S.afad\u00ee's Reject ion
of His Fatwa

H.\u00e2fiz. al-Q\u00e2r\u00ee's Reject ion of
His Fatwa
Im\u00e2m al-Khaf\u00e2j \u00ee's Reject ion
of His Fatwa
Ibn ` Abd al-H\u00e2d\u00ee Fanatic
Defense of His Teacher
The h.ad\u00eeth "Whoever visits
my grave, my int ercession
will be guaranteed for him"
Am ong those who fall int o
the category of "Ibn
Taymiyya and his follow ers\u00ee
on this issue
His Final Repent ence
His Abandonment by His
Former Admirers
His Revival of Ibn H.azm's
Vicious St yle
Ahmad ibn Taymiyya( 6 6 1- 72 8 )
A Brief Survey
Com piled by GF Haddad
Ah.m ad ibn ` Abd al-H.al\u00eem ibn ` Abd All\u00e2h ibn Ab\u00ee al-Q\u00e2sim ibn
Taym iyya, Taq\u00ee al-D\u00een Ab\u00fb al-` Abb\u00e2s ibn Shih\u00e2b al-D\u00een ibn Majd

al-D\u00een al-H.arr\u00e2n\u00ee al-Dimashq\u00ee al-H.anbal\u00ee (661-728) was one of the most influent ial scholars of the lat e H.anbal\u00ee school, praised by the h.ad\u00eeth Mast er S.al\u00e2h. al-D\u00een al-` Al\u00e2'\u00ee as "Our shaykh, mast er, and

Im\u00e2m between us and All\u00e2h Almighty, the mast er of verification,
the wayfarer of the best path, the owner of the multifarious merits
and overpowering proofs which all host s agree are impossible to
enum erat e, the Shaykh, theIm\u00e2m and faithful servant of his Lord,
the doct or in the Religion, the Ocean, the light-giving Pole of
spirituality, the leader of Im\u00e2ms, the blessing of the Comm unity,

the sign-post of the people of knowledge, the inheritor of Prophets, the last of those capable of independent legal reasoning, the most unique of the scholars of the Religion, Shaykh al-I sl\u00e2m ..."

He Was Mostly Self-Taught
A st udent of Ibn ` Abd al-D\u00e2'im, al-Q\u00e2sim al-I rbil\u00ee, Ibn ` All\u00e2n, Ibn
Ab\u00ee ` Am r al-Fakhr, Ibn Taym iyya most ly read by himself until he

achieved great learning. Shaykh al-I sl\u00e2m , al-H.\u00e2fiz. al-Taq\u00ee al-Subk\u00ee
said: "He memorized a lot and did not discipline himself with a
shaykh." He taught, authored books, gave formal legal opinions,
and generally dist inguished himself for his quick wit and

phot ographic memory.
His Principal Students
Am ong his most noted st udents were the h.ad\u00eeth mast ers Ibn

al-Qayyim, al-Dhahab\u00ee, Ibn Kath\u00eer, and Muh.am mad ibn Ah.m ad ibn ` Abd al-H\u00e2d\u00ee al-Maqdis\u00ee (705-744) as well as the H.anbal\u00ee jurist and h.ad\u00eeth narrat or Sir\u00e2j al-D\u00een Ab\u00fb H.afs. ` Um ar ibn ` Al\u00ee ibn M\u00fbs\u00e2

al-Azj \u00ee al-Bazz\u00e2r (688-749) who should not be confused with the
h.\u00e2fiz. Ab\u00fb Bakr al-Bazz\u00e2r (215-292)!
Divided Opinions Concerning Him
Ibn Taym iyya's views and manners created int ense cont roversy
both in his life and after his deat h. Al-Sak h\u00e2w\u00ee in al-Taw b\u00eekh (p. 61)
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Ahmad ibn Taymiyya (661-728)
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His Excessive Involvement
in Kal\u00e2m and Philosophy
Al-Dhahab\u00ee's Bay\u00e2n Zaghl
al-` Ilm and His Nas. \u00eeh. a to
Ibn Taymiyya
Al-Subk\u00ee's Summ ary of Ibn
Taymiyya's Deviat ions in
Doct rine
Al-Haytam \u00ee's Summ ar y His
Deviat ions in ` Aq\u00eeda, Us.\u00fbl,
and Fiqh
Al-Kawt har\u00ee's Scat hing
Exposure of His
Anthr opom or phism
His Denial of the Et ernality
of Hellfire
His Inv ent ion of a Double or
Triple Tawh.\u00eed
Al-Tubb\u00e2n\u00ee's Refut at ion of
His Multiple Tawh.\u00eeds
His Verbose Methodology in
Disput at ion
His Climbing Down the Pulpit
to Illustrat e the Divine
The Revival of His Teachings
by the Wahh\u00e2b\u00ee Movement
Recent Literature
Foot notes
noted: "Certain people gave rise to disavowal and a general

reluctance to make use of their knowledge despite their st at ure in knowledge, pious scrupulosity, and asceticism . The reason for this was the looseness of their tongues and their tactlessness in blunt speech and excessive criticism , such as Ibn H.azm and Ibn

Taym iyya, who were subsequent ly tried and harm ed."

An illustration of Ibn Taym iyya's am bivalent st at us is the fact that, although the Sh\u00e2fi` \u00ee h.ad\u00eeth Mast er al-Mizz\u00ee did not call anyone else Shaykh al-I sl\u00e2m in his time besides Ibn Taym iyya, Ibn Ab\u00ee ` Um ar al-H.anbal\u00ee, and Im\u00e2m Taq\u00ee al-D\u00een al-Subk\u00ee, yet the H.anaf\u00ee

scholar ` Al\u00e2' al-D\u00een al-Bukh\u00e2r\u00ee issued a fat w\u00e2 that if anyone called Ibn Taym iyya Shaykh al-I sl\u00e2m they would comm it disbelief and authored against the lat ter a book entitled al-Muljima li

al-Mujassima ("Curbing the Anthropom orphist s").

Ibn N\u00e2s.ir al-D\u00een al-Dimashq\u00ee countered this fat wa by authoring
al-Radd al-W\u00e2fir, in which he list ed all the authorities who had ever
written in praise of Ibn Taym iyya or called him Shaykh al-I sl\u00e2m .
Shaykh ` Abd al-Fat t\u00e2h. Ab\u00fb Ghudda includes Ibn Taym iyya am ong
the scholars who never married and extravagant ly names him
"Shaykh al-I sl\u00e2m and the St andard-Bearer of all st andard-bearers"
in his book al-` Ulam \u00e2' al-` Uzz\u00e2b, which he wrot e after he took up

residence in Najd.
Al-Dhahab\u00ee's Synopsis of His Case
In Bay\u00e2n Zaghl al-` Ilm al-Dhahab\u00ee st at es:
If you were to ex cel in the Pr inciples (al-Us.\u00fbl) and its
affiliat es - logic, et hics, philosophy, the sayings of the ancients
and the conandrums - all the while prot ecting yourself with
the Book and the Sunna as well as the doct rines of the Salaf,

then joining between reason and transmission, st ill, I do not
think you would reach the level of Ibn Taym iyya. No, by All\u00e2h!
you would not even come near it. Yet, I saw what happened
to him - how much opposition he faced, desert ion, rightful and
wrongful declarat ions of heresy, apostasy, and mendacity!

Before he entered int o this science [ i.e. Islam ic Doct rine] , he
was shining with light and enlightening ot hers, bearing the

signs of the Salaf on his face. Then he became lightless, dark
and somber to countless droves of people, a wicked
Anti-Christ and disbeliever according to his enem ies, while

great numbers of the wise and the elite considered him an
em inent , brilliant, and scholarly innovat or (mubtadi` f\u00e2d.il
muh.aqqiq b\u00e2ri`), while the comm onality of his uneducat ed
friends, one and all, deem ed him the st andard-bearer of
Isl\u00e2m , the defensor of the Religion, and the reviver of the

In the ` Ibar al-Dhahab\u00ee, after praising his teacher, st at es: "He also had some st range opinions on account of which he was at tacked." Ibn ` Abd al-H\u00e2d\u00ee in al-` Uq\u00fbd al-Durriyy a makes a similarly

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Ahmad ibn Taymiyya (661-728)
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meandrous admission that his teacher was accused of innovat ion:
"He gave vent to cert ain expressions whom early and lat e Scholars
never dared use while he boldly indulged them."

In his biographical monograph al-Durratu al-Yat \u00eemiyya f\u00ee al-S\u00eerati
al-Taymiyya, al-Dhahab\u00ee report s that Ibn Daq\u00eeq al-` \u00eed said, upon
meet ing with Ibn Taym iyya: "I saw a man with all the sciences [laid
open] before his eyes, taking what he wished and leaving what he
wished." Asked why he did not debate him, Ibn Daq\u00eeq al-` \u00eed
answered: "Because he loves to speak (yuh.ibbu al-kal\u00e2m ) and I

love silence."
Al-S.afad\u00ee: "He was very learned but lacked intelligence"

Im\u00e2m S.al\u00e2h. al-D\u00een al-S.afad\u00ee said: "The Shaykh, Im\u00e2m, and
erudite scholar Taq\u00ee al-D\u00een Ah.m ad ibn Taym iyya - All\u00e2h have mercy
on him! - was imm ensely learned but he had a defective
int elligence (` aqluhu n\u00e2qis.) that em broiled him int o perils and
made him fall int o hardships."

The Fatw\u00e2 H.amawiyya
Attributing Direction to All\u00e2h Most High
His first clash with the scholars occurred in 698 in Damascus when

he was barred from teaching after he issued his Fatw\u00e2 H.am awiyya
in which he unam biguously at tributes literal upward direct ion to
All\u00e2h (swt ). He was refut ed by his cont em porary, Im\u00e2m Ibn Jahbal
al-Kil\u00e2b\u00ee (d. 733) , in a lengt hy reply which T\u00e2j al-D\u00een al-Subk\u00ee
reproduced in full in his T.abaq\u00e2t al-Sh\u00e2fi` iyya al-Kubr\u00e2. Ibn Jahbal

wrot e: "How can you say that All\u00e2h is literally (h.aq\u00eeqatan) in (f\u00ee)
the heav en, and literally abov e (fawq) the heav en, and literally in
(f\u00ee) the Throne, and literally on ( ` al\u00e2) the Throne?! "
Q\u00e2d.\u00ee Y\u00fbsuf al-Nabah\u00e2n\u00ee also refut ed the H.am awiyya in his

magnificent epist le Raf` al-I shtib\u00e2h f\u00ee Ist ih.\u00e2lat al-Jiha ` al\u00e2 All\u00e2h
("The Removal of Uncert aint y Concerning the Impossibility of
Direct ion for Allah (swt )" ) cited in full in his Shaw\u00e2hid al-H.aqq (p.

21 0- 24 0) .
His Several Imprisonments

Ibn Taym iyy a then returned to his activities until he was summ oned by the authorities again in 705 to answ er for his ` Aq\u00eeda W\u00e2sit.iyy a. He spent the few following years in and out of jail or defending

himself from various "abhorrent charges" according to Ibn H.aj ar
al-` Asqal\u00e2n\u00ee. Because he officially repent ed, his life was spared,

although at one point it was officially announced in Damascus that "Whoever follows the beliefs of Ibn Taym iyya, his life and property are licit for seizure."

These events instigated great dissension am ong the scholars in
Damascus and Cairo as detailed in Im\u00e2m Taq\u00ee al-D\u00een al-H.is.n\u00ee's
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