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Parasitic Disease(Trichomoniasis)

Parasitic Disease(Trichomoniasis)

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Published by Brijesh Singh Yadav
This article give the knowledge about Parasitic Disease(Trichomoniasis)
This article give the knowledge about Parasitic Disease(Trichomoniasis)

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Published by: Brijesh Singh Yadav on Dec 12, 2009
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02/06/2013

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Trichomoniasis
Disease Type:
Parasitic Disease
Common Name: :
Trichomoniasis
 
Causative Agent:
Trichomonas vaginalis
Disease Discription:
Trichomoniasis, sometimes referred to as "trich", is a commonsexually transmitted disease (STD). It is caused by the single-celled protozoan (thesmallest, single-celled members of the animal kingdom) parasite
Trichomonas vaginalis
.Trichomoniasis is primarily an infection of the genitourinary tract; the most common siteof infection is the urethra and the vagina in women. if the normal acidity of the vagina isshifted from a healthy, semi-acidic pH (3.8 - 4.2) to a much more basic one (5 - 6) that isconducive to
T. vaginalis
growth. Some of the symptoms of T. vaginalis include: pretermdelivery, low birth weight, and increased mortality as well as predisposing to HIVinfection, AIDS, and cervical cancer.
[5]
 
T. vaginalis
has also been reported in the urinarytract, fallopian tubes, and pelvis and can cause pneumonia, bronchitis .This disease ismost common in women and uncircumcised men. For uncircumcised men, the mostcommon site for the infection is the tip of the penis.According to the World Health Organization's annual estimates, there are an estimated7.4 million trichomoniasis cases each year in the United States, with over 180 millioncases reported worldwide. 
Fig.
Trichomoniasis infection in human female Vagina and Bird
Causes of Disease:
Physiologic
 –Many women will have a consistent, slightly clear, non-odor-producing
 
discharge, either midcycle or premenstrually, particularly if they are on oralcontraceptives –A change in odor, consistency, or color of discharge may signify that evaluationis necessary –Increased discharge is associated with pregnancy
Sexually transmitted disease
 – 
Trichomonas vaginalis:
“Strawberry cervix” with punctate erythema,flagellated oval organisms on wet mount –Gonorrhea/
Chlamydia
may be associated with pelvic pain/dysmenorrhea anddyspareunia
Bacterial vaginosis
  –Various organisms and changes in normal flora with a characteristic fishy odor  –Not considered an STD –Increases the risk of preterm delivery in pregnant women
Alteration of normal vaginal flora and/or inflammatory response
  – 
Candida albicans
overgrowth is more common with recent antibiotic use, poorly controlled diabetes, and/or pregnancy; presents with intensely pruritic,inflamed, and erythematous introitus –Doderlein's cytolysis (caused by an overgrowth of lactobacilli)
Atrophic vaginitis
  –Common in postmenopausal women, especially those not on HRT –Poor coital lubrication, dyspareunia –Dysuria due to atrophic urethral tissue
Foreign body vaginitis (e.g., retained tampon)
 Noninfectious irritant/allergic contact vaginitis (e.g., soaps, feminine pads, perfumes)
Cervicitis (usually due to gonorrhea or 
Chlamydia
)
Cervical dysplasia, cancer, or polyps
Vaginal or vulvar trauma or cancer Physiologic leukorrhea –In newborns for 2–3 weeks, due to maternal estrogen effect, and in pubertal girls –Discharge typically clear to white, sticky, and nonirritating –Newborns may have withdrawal bleeding
Infections –Bacterial vaginosis: Previously known as nonspecific vaginitis; polymicrobialin etiology (coliforms, streptococci,
Gardnerella
); discharge may be gray andmalodorous (fishy smell) but generally nonirritating – 
Discharge may be cheesy and white with erythematous, pruritic,irritated vulva; typical discharge is rarely seen in prepubertal children; dischargetypically has no odor  – 
Trichomonas:
Discharge may be frothy, malodorous, creamy, green, bloody, or  pruritic (or asymptomatic)
 
 – 
Chlamydia:
Commonly asymptomatic or a nonspecific discharge –Gonorrhea: Infection is commonly asymptomatic or has a gray-white, thick, purulent discharge –Group A β-hemolytic streptococci: Discharge may be bloody – 
Shigella:
Discharge may be bloody
Irritation/hygiene –Due to bubble baths and other chemical irritants, tight clothing, obesity, poor wiping
Foreign body –Commonly includes toilet paper, forgotten tampon –Discharge is often bloody and malodorous
Anatomic –Ectopic urethra –Rectovaginal fistula –Urethral prolapse
Urinary tract infection
Masturbation
Sarcoma botyroides
Oral contraceptives (estrogen effect)
[7]
Risk Factors:
The list of risk factors mentioned for Trichomoniasis in various sourcesincludes:
Unsafe sex
Multiple sexual partners
Towels
Toilet water 
 
Causative Agent:
Pathogen Name:
Trichomonas vaginalis
,
Pathogen Description:
Trichomonas vaginalis
, an anaerobic, parasitic flagellated protozoan, is the causative agent of trichomoniasis, and is the most common pathogenic protozoan infection of humans in industrialized countries.
[1]
The WHO has estimated that180 million infections are acquired annually worldwide. The estimates for North Americaalone are between 5 and 8 million new infections each year, with an estimated rate of asymptomatic cases as high as 50%.
[2]

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