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Parasite Disease(Malaria)

Parasite Disease(Malaria)

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Published by Brijesh Singh Yadav
Malaria is a worldwide problem with two-thirds of the world's population living in malarious areas and if global warming eventuates, this proportion could increase to three-quarters by 2010.
Malaria is a worldwide problem with two-thirds of the world's population living in malarious areas and if global warming eventuates, this proportion could increase to three-quarters by 2010.

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Published by: Brijesh Singh Yadav on Dec 12, 2009
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01/23/2013

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MALARIA
Disease Name
:
 
Malaria
Other name:
"Paludism" or Paludeen fever"
Disease Category
: Parasite Disease
Disease description:
Malaria is a worldwide problem with two-thirds of the world's population living in malarious areas and if global warming eventuates, this proportioncould increase to three-quarters by 2010. At a conservative estimate there are 250 millionnew infections per year. The problem is getting worse because of increasing anti-malariadrug resistance by parasites, as well as increasing resistance to insecticides bymosquitoes. It is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites andwidespread in tropical and subtropical regions, including parts of the Americas, Asia,and Africa. Each year, there are approximately 515 million cases of malaria, killing between one and three million people, the majority of whom are young children in Sub-Saharan Africa.Malaria is commonly associated with poverty, but is also a cause of  poverty and a major hindrance to economic development.
 The disease is caused byprotozoan parasites
of the
 
genus
 Plasmodium
. This group of human-pathogenic
 
 Plasmodium
 
species isusually referred to as
 
malaria parasites
.
 
Patient with Malaria in Tanzanian malaria Deadly Reign
Malaria parasites are transmitted by female
 Anopheles
mosquitoes. The parasites multiply within red blood cells, causing symptoms thatinclude symptoms of anemia , as well as other general symptoms suchas fever, chills, nausea, flu-like illness, and in severe cases, coma anddeath. Malaria transmission can be reduced by preventing mosquitobites with mosquito nets and insect repellents, or by mosquito controlmeasures such as spraying insecticides inside houses and drainingstanding water where mosquitoes lay their eggs. Malaria infections aretreated through the use of antimalarial drugs, suchas quinine orartemisinin derivatives, although drug resistance isincreasingly common
.
Types of malaria:
There are 4 types of malaria that infect humans:
 
Plasmodium vivax, abbreviated as P.v.
Plasmodium malariae, abbreviated as P.m.
Plasmodium ovale, abbreviated as P.o. and
Plasmodium falciparum, abbreviated as P.f.
Malaria and HIV/AIDS (WHO):
Malaria and HIV are two of the most devastating global health problems of our time.Together they cause more than 4 million deaths a year. Both are diseases of poverty, and both are causes of poverty. To a considerable extend, both are concentrated in the samegeographical regions. The resulting co-infection and interaction between the two diseaseshave major public health implications.
HIV-infected people must be considered particularly vulnerable to malaria;
Antenatal care needs to address both diseases and their interactions;
Where both diseases occur, more attention must be given to specific diagnosis for febrile patients.
Source:http://www.who.int/malaria/malariandhivaids.html
 
Socio-economic effects:
Malaria is not just a disease commonly associated with poverty, but is also a cause of  poverty and a major hindrance to economic development. The disease has beenassociated with major negative economic effects on regions where it is widespread. Acomparison of average per capita GDP in 1995, adjusted to give parity of purchasing power, between malarious and non-malarious countries demonstrates a fivefolddifference ($1,526 USD versus $8,268 USD). Moreover, in countries where malaria iscommon, average per capita GDP has risen (between 1965 and 1990) only 0.4% per year,compared to 2.4% per year in other countries. However, correlation does not demonstratecausation, and the prevalence is at least partly because these regions do not have thefinancial capacities to prevent malaria. In its entirety, the economic impact of malaria has been estimated to cost Africa $12 billion USD every year. The economic impact includescosts of health care, working days lost due to sickness, days lost in education, decreased productivity due to brain damage from cerebral malaria, and loss of investment andtourism. In some countries with a heavy malaria burden, the disease may account for asmuch as 40% of public health expenditure, 30-50% of inpatient admissions, and up to50% of outpatient visits.
History of Malaria:
 Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran Sir Ronald Ross

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