Welcome to Scribd. Sign in or start your free trial to enjoy unlimited e-books, audiobooks & documents.Find out more
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Whole-Slide Imaging Digital Pathology as a Platform for Teleconsultation

Whole-Slide Imaging Digital Pathology as a Platform for Teleconsultation

|Views: 660|Likes:
Published by Neelesh Bhandari
Whole-Slide Imaging Digital Pathology as a Platform for
A Pilot Study Using Paired Subspecialist Correlations
Whole-Slide Imaging Digital Pathology as a Platform for
A Pilot Study Using Paired Subspecialist Correlations

More info:

Published by: Neelesh Bhandari on Dec 15, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less





Arch Pathol Lab Med—Vol 133, December 2009
Whole-Slide Imaging for Teleconsultation
—Wilbur et al
Whole-Slide Imaging Digital Pathology as a Platform forTeleconsultation
A Pilot Study Using Paired Subspecialist Correlations
David C. Wilbur, MD; Kalil Madi, MD; Robert B. Colvin, MD; Lyn M. Duncan, MD; William C. Faquin, MD, PhD; Judith A. Ferry, MD; Matthew P. Frosch, MD, PhD; Stuart L. Houser, MD; Richard L. Kradin, MD; Gregory Y. Lauwers, MD;David N. Louis, MD; Eugene J. Mark, MD; Mari Mino-Kenudson, MD; Joseph Misdraji, MD; Gunnlauger P. Nielsen, MD;Martha B. Pitman, MD; Andrew E. Rosenberg, MD; R. Neal Smith, MD, PhD; Aliyah R. Sohani, MD; James R. Stone, MD, PhD;Rosemary H. Tambouret, MD; Chin-Lee Wu, MD, PhD; Robert H. Young, MD; Artur Zembowicz, MD;Wolfgang Klietmann, MD 
—Whole-slide imaging technology offers prom-ise for rapid, Internet-based telepathology consultationsbetween institutions. Before implementation, technical is-sues, pathologist adaptability, and morphologic pitfallsmust be well characterized.
—To determine whether interpretation of whole-slide images differed from glass-slide interpretationin difficult surgical pathology cases.
—Diagnostically challenging pathology slidesfrom a variety of anatomic sites from an outside laboratorywere scanned into whole digital format. Digital and glassslides were independently diagnosed by 2 subspecialty pa-thologists. Reference, digital, and glass-slide interpreta-tions were compared. Operator comments on technical is-sues were gathered.
—Fifty-three case pairs were analyzed.Therewasagreement among digital, glass, and reference diagnoses in45 cases (85%) and between digital and glass diagnoses in48 (91%) cases.There were 5 digital cases (9%) discordantwith both reference and glass diagnoses. Further review of each of these cases indicated an incorrect digital whole-slide interpretation. Neoplastic cases showed better cor-relation (93%) than did cases of nonneoplastic disease(88%). Comments on discordant cases related to digitalwhole technology focused on issues such as fine resolutionand navigating ability at high magnification.
—Overall concordance between digitalwhole-slide and standard glass-slide interpretations wasgood at 91%. Adjustments in technology, case selection,and technology familiarization should improve perfor-mance, making digital whole-slide review feasible forbroader telepathology subspecialty consultation applica-tions.(
Arch Pathol Lab Med.
hole-slide imaging at resolutions comparable to stan-dard microscopic evaluation is now technologicallyfeasible.
A variety of commercial systems that performtechnically simple and rapid image capture and viewingare available on the market.
Accordingly, entire patholog-ic glass slides can now be converted into whole-slide dig-ital files. As scan resolutions have increased and viewers
Accepted for publication March 5, 2009.From the Department of Pathology, James Homer Wright PathologyLaboratories, Massachusetts General Hospital, and the Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston (Drs Wilbur, Colvin, Dun-can, Faquin, Ferry, Frosch, Houser, Kradin, Lauwers, Louis, Mark,Mino-Kenudson, Misdraji, Nielsen, Pitman, Rosenberg, Smith, Sohani,Stone, Tambouret, Wu, Young, and Zembowicz); the Department of Pathology, University Federal de Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil(Dr Madi); and Corista LLC, Concord, Massachusetts (Dr Klietmann).Dr Klietmann is now with the Department of Pathology, Harvard Med-ical School.The authors have no relevant financial interest in the products orcompanies described in this article.Presented in part at the 97th Annual Meeting of the United Statesand Canadian International Academy of Pathology, Denver, Colorado,March 1–7, 2008.Reprints: David C. Wilbur, MD, Department of Pathology, Massa-chusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit St, Boston, MA 02114 (e-mail:dwilbur@partners.org).
have become more facile, these digital whole-slide images(WSI) can simulate the microscopic image viewed at anyof the magnifications traditionally used to make light mi-croscopic clinical interpretations. The uses of such virtualslides are many and include Internet- and other digitalmedia-based continuing medical education and perfor-mance/validation testing methods
; digital-slide archiv-ing, obviating the need to retain large, glass-slide–basedfiles, particularly of rare or nonretained consultative ma-terials
; quality assurance reviews
; and use of the digitalfiles to make remote interpretations (telepathology) via In-ternet or internal network connections.
Initial investiga-tions have shown very good correlation of results betweenstandard glass slide and digital whole-slide interpreta-tions in breast,
and mixed-specimen biopsies.
The present study investigates the use of WSI technol-ogy as a platform for telepathology expert consultation.Use of this type of format should allow a pathologist any-where in the world to send the virtual slide from his/herlaboratory to a consultant in any location, via a high-speedInternet connection. Such an exchange would reduce theturnaround time of consultations and eliminate the selec-tion bias of the sending pathologist in choosing static im-ages as in formerly available telepathology systems. To
Arch Pathol Lab Med—Vol 133, December 2009
Whole-Slide Imaging for Teleconsultation
—Wilbur et al
Figure 1.
The Zeiss Mirax Desk Imaging device is shown. This device scans single slides into whole-slide digital images, which are viewed on the Mirax viewer.
Figure 2.
The image shown in the Mirax viewer screen is a trichrome stain of one of the discrepant cases interpreted as biliary adenofibromaby the whole-slide reviewer and mesenchymal hamartoma by the glass-slide and reference reviewers. The main image can be magnified and moved about the screen by the use of a mouse and/or function buttons above the image.
perform a preliminary test of a WSI teleconsultation sys-tem, in a format mimicking the real-life experience of chal-lenging cases that might be sent for consultative opinions,whole-slide images were made from glass surgical pa-thology slides, derived from an array of organ systemsfrom a laboratory on one continent, and viewed by expertsubspecialty consultants from an institution on anothercontinent. Diagnostically difficult cases, requiring exten-sive review, were used to identify the potential pitfalls ofthis technology.
Glass slides were selected from the files of a large anatomicpathology laboratory in South America, under a protocol ap-proved by the institution’s human subject review board. Slideswere selected as being representative of challenging cases thatmight have been sent for expert consultation. Cases from a rep-resentative variety of organ systems were included to test agroup of subspecialist consultant pathologists. For the purposesof this study, the submitted diagnosis from the originating lab-oratory was considered the
reference interpretation
for each case.Each glass slide was converted to a WSI (virtual slide) using aZeiss Mirax Desk scanning device (Zeiss, Oberkochen, Germany;Figure 1). The WSIs were stored on a hard drive, which was sentto a large referral center in the United States, where glass-slide– based subspecialty consultative interpretation services are rou-tinely rendered. Although the images were not sent directlythrough the Internet, the appearances and manipulation featuresof the WSI in the viewer were identical to what would be avail-able if the WSI had been accessed from a remote server via theInternet. Remote access was not directly performed because oflogistic issues. The slides were accompanied by short histories,including anatomic site, age and sex of the patient, and pertinentclinical findings. The WSI slides were reviewed by subspecialtypathologists using the Mirax Desk viewer and a high-resolution24-inch monitor (Figure 2). The viewer allows the pathologist toreview the digital image at any magnification ordinarily used ina standard microscope with similar resolution capability (up to
400 with added capability of reviewing the image at any mag-nification among those of microscope objectives). All consultantpathologists were masked to any earlier interpretations. The con-sultant pathologists were instructed to make an interpretation ofthe whole-slide image as if they had been given the actual glassslide for consultation (the
whole-slide image interpretation
[WSII]).Following WSI evaluation, the actual glass slides from each casewere shipped to the reference institution, where they were alsoevaluated by a different subspecialty pathologist based on thestated site of the specimen (the
glass-slide interpretation
[GSI]). Anidentical history and instructions for interpretation to that givenin the WSI arm were given to each consultant pathologist in theGSI arm. Following completion of both study arms, the resultsof WSII, GSI, and submitting reference interpretation were com-pared. When discorrelations occurred, re-review of cases withthesubspecialist pathologists was performed until a consensus finaldiagnosis was achieved. General and specific comments were so-licited from the WSI reviewers regarding the use of the technol-ogy.
The slide set was composed of 53 cases. The organ sitesand submitting reference diagnoses (the reference inter-pretation ) of the set are shown in Table 1 and representa diverse variety of pathologic abnormalities likely to besubmitted for expert consultation. The overall concor-dance rate for exact diagnosis between WSII, GSI, and ref-erence interpretation was 85% (45 of 53). The correlation between the WSII and GSI was 91% (48 of 53), which in-dicates that in 3 cases, both consultantsinterpretations(WSII and GSI) did not agree with the submittedreferenceinterpretation. Further review of these 3 cases by a thirdreferee pathologist indicated that the consultantsinter-pretations were more likely correct. Table 2 shows the cor-relation rate between WSII and GSI within each organ sys-tem examined. Errors were made in the WSII in lung, gas-trointestinal, hematopathology, and dermatopathologysubspecialties, but there was no evidence to suggest thatthere were specific interpretation difficulties inherent inany of these organ systems. It was determined to be morelikely that the types of cases and the technology involvedwere responsible as the root cause of these errors. Table 3shows the cases with discordant results between WSII andthe concordant GSI and reference interpretation. In all 5of these discordant cases (9%), the GSI was in agreementwith the submitting reference diagnosis, and further re-view indicated an error in the WSII examination. Four ofthe 5 errors (80%) were in nonneoplastic entities,includingemphysema, granulomatous colitis, hepatic mesenchymalhamartoma, and dermal vasculitis, with the remaining
Arch Pathol Lab Med—Vol 133, December 2009
Whole-Slide Imaging for Teleconsultation
—Wilbur et al
Table 1. Reference Interpretations of the SubmittedCases
LungBronchiectasisOrganizing pneumonia with
Pneumocystis carinii 
Pulmonary sarcoidosis with silicotic nodulePulmonary aspergillomaBullous emphysemaCentrilobular emphysemaPulmonary adenocarcinomaPulmonary squamous cell carcinomaPulmonary small cell carcinomaUpper gastrointestinalGastric adenocarcinoma (intestinal type)Gastric adenocarcinoma (mucinous type)Gastric stromal tumorIntestinal ischemiaCardiovascularCystic medial necrosis (aorta)Aortic atherosclerosisCoronary atherosclerosis (left-sided coronary)Acute and chronic myocardial infarctionBacterial endocarditisThyroid/salivary glandPapillary carcinoma (thyroid)Hashimoto thyroiditisFollicular carcinoma (thyroid)Pleomorphic adenoma (submaxillary)Adenoid cystic carcinomaWarthin tumorBone and soft tissuePeritoneal leiomyosarcomaGouty tophusSchwannomaProstateProstatic adenocarcinomaHematopathologyHodgkin lymphoma, mixed-cellularity typeCastleman disease, plasma cell variantThymoma, spindle cellGranulomatous lymphadenitis (Bacillus Calmette-Guerin)Necrotizing granulomatous lymphadenitis (histoplasma)Liver/gall bladderMicronodular cirrhosisMesenchymal hamartoma cervix/uterusCervix/uterusSquamous cell carcinoma (cervix, microinvasive)Squamous cell carcinoma (cervix, advanced)Endometrial adenocarcinomaHydatidiform mole (lower gastrointestinal)Adenocarcinoma, mucinous (colon)Lower gastrointestinalUlcerative colitis with pseudopolypsVillous adenoma (right colon)Ileocecal tuberculosisBurkitt lymphoma of appendixKidneyOncocytomaMulticystic nephromaSuppurative pyelonephritisWilm tumorLupus erythematosusRenal infarctionDermatologyMalignant melanomaCutaneous necrotizing vasculitisCentral nervous systemAstrocytoma
Table 2. Correlation Rate Between Whole-Slide andGlass-Slide Interpretations in Each Organ System
Organ System, No.Correlation Rate,% (No.)
Lung, 9 89 (8)Liver/gastrointestinal tract, 11 82 (9)Cardiovascular, 5 100 (5)Hematopathology, 5 80 (4)Thyroid/salivary, 6 100 (6)Skin, 2 50 (1)Kidney, 6 100 (6)Prostate, 1 100 (1)Gynecologic, 4 100 (4)Bone/soft tissue, 3 100 (3)Neuropathology, 1 100 (1)Total neoplastic, 25 93 (23)Total nonneoplastic, 28 88
(25)Total, 53 91 (48)
Difference nonsignificant,
case being a mixed-cellularity Hodgkin lymphoma. Over-all, therefore, neoplastic cases performed slightly better(93% concordance of WSII and GSI; 26 of 28 cases) thandid nonneoplastic cases (88% concordance; 22 of 25 cases),although the difference was not significant (
.5).Negative comment from WSI reviewers related to vir-tual slide-viewing technical issues, such as fine resolutionand ease and speed of navigation, especially at high mag-nifications. Comments also indicated initial unease or lackof confidence in arriving at a precise diagnosis when us-ing this technology. Positive comments included the abil-ity to make a confident diagnosis and that the ease of useof the instrumentation was acceptable in comparison toglass-slide review.
Based on the results of this study, WSI interpretation ofconsultative material is feasible. The correlation betweenWSI and glass-slide interpretation was good at 91% of cas-es (48 of 53 cases concurred). There is room for improve-ment, however, as the WSII was incorrect in the 5 noncor-relative cases (9%). There was no case in which the WSII‘‘trumped’’ the GSI. Most of the misinterpreted WSI casesinvolved nonneoplastic entities; most notably difficultwere pulmonary interstitial disease, dermal vasculitis, andunusual, benign hamartoma interpretations. However,WSI evaluation misclassified a mixed-cellularity Hodgkinlymphoma case, a process in which inflammatory entitiesare often in the differential diagnosis. This case was in-terpreted as either viral lymphadenitis or peripheralT-cell lymphoma in the WSI reviews. It would appear,therefore, that one of the findings of this study is that in-flammatory conditions, particularly those requiring metic-ulous searching at high magnification, may be more dif-ficult in the WSI format. This hypothesis is further cor-roborated by technology comments related to difficulty ofnavigation and resolving power at WSI high magnifica-tions.Despite the above limitations of this study, the resultsare not dissimilar from the results noted in prior WSI andglass-slide evaluation comparison studies. Weinstein andcolleagues
reported a 98% concordance in interpretationof breast cases but noted that when equivocal interpreta-tions were included as miscorrelations to definitive diag-noses in more challenging cases, the concordance rate

Activity (6)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 hundred reads
1 thousand reads
Neelesh Bhandari liked this
Neelesh Bhandari liked this
a_levy liked this
Ching Wei Wang liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->