data link service and protocol specification used in transporting IP packets over SDH networks. LAPS provides a point-to-point unacknowledged connectionless service over SONET/SDH. LAPS enables the encapsulation of IPv6, IPv4, PPP, and other higher-layer protocols.
Generic Framing Procedure (GFP):
another key encapsulation scheme in EoS and more robust technologythan LAPS, GFP maps Ethernet packet data into an octet-synchronous transport such as SONET. GFP hasadapted the cell delineation protocol used by ATM to encapsulate variable length packets. A fixed amount of overhead is required by the GFP encapsulation that is independent of the contents of the packets. In contrast toHDLC whose overhead is data dependent, the fixed amount of overhead per packet allows deterministicmatching of bandwidth between the Ethernet stream and the virtually concatenated SONET stream. Within GFP,there are two different mapping modes defined: frame based mapping and transparent mapping. Each mode isoptimized for providing different services.There are two modes of GFP: Generic Framing Procedure - Framed (GFP-F) and Generic Framing Procedure -Transparent (GFP-T):
maps each client frame into a single GFP frame.GFP-F is used where the client signal is framedor packetized by the client protocol. It is a direct replacement for HDLC. It has defined parameters for mapping all flavors of Ethernet, including 10/100, Gigabit, and 10-Gigabit Ethernet, as well as Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) and RPR. It is optimized for bandwidth efficiency at the expense of latency. Itencapsulates complete Ethernet (or other types of) frames with a GFP header.
, on the other hand, allows mapping of multiple 8B/10B block-coded client data streams into anefficient 64B/65B block code for transport within a GFP frame. It has been defined to provide generic protocol mapping onto Sonet/SDH and OTN. Transparent GFP is used to map storage protocols such asFibre Channel, ESCON, and FiCON, as well as other protocols such as Digital Video Broadcast (DVB).A GFP frame consists of:
a core header
a payload header
an optional extension header
a GFP payload an optional payload frame check sequence (FCS).As discussed earlier, a major application of GFP and VC is to support the mapping of sub-rate Ethernetservices. In many cases, metro customers do not require a full gigabit of bandwidth but may require 50-, 100-, or 200-Mbit/s. By using GFP, VC, and LCAS combined with some policing, multiple Gigabit Ethernet links can beaggregated onto a single OC48 pipe, as shown in Figure
Figure:Ethernet Aggregation Example