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a good test review in Momentum
a good test review in Momentum

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12/06/2012

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1. What impulse will give a 2.0 kg mass a momentum change of +50 kg m/sec?a. +25 N sec b.-25 N secc.+50 N secd.+100 N sec2. The quantity 1 kg m/sec is equivalent toa. 1 N b.1 N secc.1 N/secd.1 N/m3. You're driving down the highway and a bug spatters into your windshield. Whichundergoes the greater change is momentum?a. the bug b.your cac.both the same
Both the car and the bug experience the same impulsetherefore, will have the same change in momentum.

2.The head of a hammer (
m
= 1.5 kg) moving at 4.5 m/s strikes a nailand bounces backwith the same speed after an elastic collision lasting 0.075 s. What isthe magnitude of the average force the hammer exerts on the nail?
V = -4.5 m/sMass of hammer = 1.5 kgBEFOREAFTEV = 4.5 m/sMass of hammer = 1.5 kgP
hammer
= (1.5 kg)(-4.5 m/s)P
hammer
= -6.75 kg*m/sP
hammer
= (1.5 kg)(4.5 m/s)P
hammer
= 6.75 kg*m/sThis is not an isolated system because the hammer struck an external object (the nail) andtherefore the momentum of the hammer has changed. Change in momentum is called impulse.The change in momentum is the finalmomentum minus the initial momentumor:Impulse = (6.75 kg*m/s) – (-6.75 kg*m/s)Impulse = 13.5 kg*m/sImpulse also equals force multiplied by thechange in time so:I / t = F(13.5 kg*m/s) / (0.075 s) = F
180 N = F

3. A machine gun fires 0.050-kg bullets at the rate of 4 bullets persecond. The bullets leave the gun at a speed of 1000 m/s. What is theaverage recoil force experienced by the machine gun?
BEFOREAFTEMass of bullet = 0.05 kgVelocity of bullet = 0 m/sMass of bullet = 0.05 kgVelocity of bullet = 1000 m/sP
bullet
= 0 kg*m/sP
bullet
= (1000 m/s)(0.05 kg)P
bullet
= 50 kg*m/sThe bullet is not an isolated system and its momentum has changed. The changein momentum is called impulse and has a value of 50 kg*m/s. The force the gunexerts on the bullet is the same force the bullet exerts on the gun. So the gunreceives the same impulse the bullet receives only in the opposite direction!Impulse = F * tF = I / tBut we don’t know time!!!But wait, we do! If 4 bullets are everysecond then 1 bullet would be firedevery 0.25 seconds.F = (- 50 kg*m/s) / (0.25 seconds)
F = - 200 N
The negative sign is because theimpulse of the bullet was positive soin order for the gun to have an equal but opposite impulse the gun’simpulse would be negative. Thenegative force means the bulletexerted the force on the gun to theleft.