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Computer Technology in 2020

Computer Technology in 2020

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Published by Balaji Rao N
NANO TECHNOLOGY, OPTICAL COMPUTER, Electronic Digital Paper, Holographic Storage Technologies, Solid State Storage Technologies, Solid State Storage Technologies, Molecular Switches, Quantum Computers, VLIW Processors, Plastic Displays, Roentgen Display Technology, Augmented Reality, Augmented Reality, Letizia The Computer Avatar, Future User Interfaces, The 3D Graphical User Interface, Machine Translation, Hot Video Multimedia Interface, Scene Based Graphics Rendering, DataHiding, Fractal Image Compression, Future Compression Technologies, The Next Generation Internet, Teledesic The Orbiting Internet, The Interplanetary Internet, The Next Generation Of Wireless Telephony, Photonic Networks, The Personal Area Network (PAN), Bluetooth, xDSL, HTTP - The Next Generation, HTTP - The Next Generation, WAP

NANO TECHNOLOGY, OPTICAL COMPUTER, Electronic Digital Paper, Holographic Storage Technologies, Solid State Storage Technologies, Solid State Storage Technologies, Molecular Switches, Quantum Computers, VLIW Processors, Plastic Displays, Roentgen Display Technology, Augmented Reality, Augmented Reality, Letizia The Computer Avatar, Future User Interfaces, The 3D Graphical User Interface, Machine Translation, Hot Video Multimedia Interface, Scene Based Graphics Rendering, DataHiding, Fractal Image Compression, Future Compression Technologies, The Next Generation Internet, Teledesic The Orbiting Internet, The Interplanetary Internet, The Next Generation Of Wireless Telephony, Photonic Networks, The Personal Area Network (PAN), Bluetooth, xDSL, HTTP - The Next Generation, HTTP - The Next Generation, WAP

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Published by: Balaji Rao N on Jan 21, 2010
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12/16/2012

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COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY IN 2020
NANO TECHNOLOGY
Here's a date for your diary November 1st, 2011. According to a group of researchers calling themselves the Nanocomputer Dream Team, that's the daythey'll unveil a revolutionary kind of computer, the most powerful ever seen.Their nanocomputer will be made out of atoms.First suggested by Richard Feynman in 1959, the idea of nanotechnology,constructing at the atomic level, is now a major research topic worldwide.Theoreticians have already come up with designs for simple mechanicalstructures like bearings, hinges, gears and pumps, each made from a fewcollections of atoms. These currently exist only as computer simulations, andthe race is on to fabricate the designs and prove that they can work.Moving individual atoms around at will sounds like fantasy, but it's alreadybeen demonstrated in the lab. In 1989, scientists at IBM used an electronmicroscope to shuffle 35 xenon atoms into the shape of their company's logo.Since then a team at IBM's Zurich labs has achieved the incredible feat of creating a working abacus on the atomic scale.Each bead is a single molecule of buckminsterfullerene (a buckyball),comprising 60 atoms of carbon linked into a football shape. The beads slide upand down a copper plate, nudged by the tip of an electron microscope.The Nanocomputer Dream Team wants to use these techniques to build anatomic computer. Such a computer, they say can then be used to control
 
simple molecular construction machines, which can then build more complexmolecular devices, ultimately giving complete control of the molecular world.The driving force behind the Dream Team is Bill Spence, publisher of Nanotechnology magazine. Spence is convinced that the technology can bemade to work, and has enlisted the help of over 300 enthusiasts with diversebackgrounds - engineers, physicists, chemists, programmers and artificialintelligence researchers. The whole team has never met, and probably never will. They communicate by email and pool their ideas on the Web. There's onlyone problem. Nobody is quite sure how to build a digital nanocomputer.The most promising idea is rod logic, invented by nanotechnology pioneer Eric Drexler, now chairman of the leading nano think tank The ForesightInstitute. Rod logic uses stiff rods made from short chains of carbon atoms.Around each rod sits a knob made of a ring of atoms. The rods are fitted intoan interlocking lattice, where each rod can slide between two positions, and bereset by a spring made of another few atoms. Drexler has shown how to usesuch an arrangement to achieve the effect of a conventional electronictransistor, where the flow of current in one wire is switched on and off bycurrent in a different wire. Once you have transistors, you can build a NANDgate. From NAND gates you can construct every other logic element acomputer needs.Apart from the immensely difficult problem of physically piecing together these molecular structures, massive calculations are required to determine if particular molecular configurations are even possible. The Dream Team willperform these molecular simulation calculations using metacomputing where
 
each person's PC performs a tiny part of the overall calculation, and theresults are collated on the Web. There are already prototype tools foexperimenting with molecular configurations, such as NanoCAD, a freewarenano design system including Java source code.This may all sound like pie in the sky, but there's serious research anddevelopment money being spent on nanotechnology. A recent survey countedover 200 companies and university research groups working in the field. AndApril 1997 saw the foundation of Zyvex, the world's first nanotechnologymanufacturing company. Zyvex's goal is to build an assembler, the basicelement required for nanotechnology. The assembler will itself be a machinemade from molecules, fitted with atom sized tools for manipulating other molecules to build other machines. It will also be capable of replicating itself from the materials around it.While they may lack any actual working prototypes of their technology,nanotechnologists are certainly not short of ideas. Once you have the ability tomake molecular machines, the possibilities are amazing and often bizarre. Oneidea is utility fog, where billions of submicroscopic molecular robots eachcontaining a nanocomputer are linked together to form a solid mass.Controlled by a master nanocomputer, the robots could alter theiconfigurations to create any object you like.Nanotechnology does come with one tiny drawback, however. What happens if a molecular machine goes haywire, and instead of building, starts demolishingthe molecules around it? The world would quite literally fall apart.
OPTICAL COMPUTER
In most modern computers, electrons travel between transistor switches onmetal wires or traces to gather, process and store information. The opticalcomputers of the future will instead use photons traveling on optical fibers or thin films to perform these functions. But entirely optical computer systemsare still far into the future. Right now scientists are focusing on developinghybrids by combining electronics with photonics. Electro-optic hybrids werefirst made possible around 1978, when researchers realised that photons

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