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Published by: bobysoomro75 on Feb 22, 2010
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Chapter No. 05
( )
Mohd Yousuf Soomro Lecturer 
Applications Of Newton’s Laws
Institute of Physics
Force laws:
To understand the effects of forces a detailed microscopic understanding o
f interactionof objects with their environment is necessary.All of known forces in the universe can be grouped into four types.
1-The Gravitational forces2-The Electromagnetic forces3-The Weak Nuclear forces4-The Strong Nuclear forces.
1- The Gravitational forces:
It originates with the presence of matter. The gravitational force between two protons just touching their surfaces is about 10
of the strong force between them.The principal difference between gravitation & other forces is that, on the practicalscale, gravity is cumulative and infinite in range. Gravity is the weakest of thefour  fundamental forces, yet it is the dominant force in the universe for shaping the largescale structure of galaxies, stars, etc.The gravitational force between two masses m
and m
is given by the relationship:This is often called the "universal law of gravitation" and G the universal gravitationconstant. It is an example of aninverse square lawforce. The force is always attractiveand acts along the line joining the centers of mass of the two masses. The forces on thetwo masses are equal in size but opposite in direction, obeying Newton's third law.Viewed as anexchange force, the mass less exchange particle is called thegraviton. The gravity force has the same form asCoulomb's lawfor the forces between electriccharges, i.e., it is an inverse square law force which depends upon the product of thetwo interacting sources.
2- The Electromagnetic forces:
Electromagnetism is important in the structure & the interaction of fundamental particle.It is also responsible for the binding of atoms & the structure of solids. theelectromagnetic force manifests itself through the forces between charges.The electromagnetism force between two neighboring protons is about 10
f the strongforce. The electromagnetic force is a force of infinite range which obeys theinverse square law, and is of the same form as thegravity force.
3- The Weak Nuclear forces:
The weak force is responsible for certain radioactive process & other similar decay processes involving fundamental particles. The weak force between two neighboring protons is about 10
of strong force between them. One of thefour fundamental forces,the weak interaction involves theexchangeof theintermediate vector bosons, the W and the Z. Since the mass of these particles is on the order of 80 GeV, the uncertainty principle dictates arangeof about 10
meters which is about 0.1% of the diameter of a proton.It is crucial to the structure of the universe in that1. The sun would not burn without it since the weak interaction causes the transmutation
 p n
so thatdeuterium can formand deuterium fusion can take place.2. It is necessary for the buildup of heavy nuclei.It was in radioactive decay such as beta decaythat the existence of the weak interactionwas first revealed.
4- The Strong Nuclear force:
A force which can hold a nucleus together against the enormous forces of repulsion of the protons is strong indeed. However, it is not an inverse square force like theelectromagnetic force and it has a veryshort range.It is responsible for the binding of the nuclei, is the dominant force in the react
ion &decays of most of the fundamental particles.The relative strength b/w two neighboring protons is 1. the strong force is 10
timesgreater than gravitational force.
Fundamental Forces
Unification for forces:
In 19
century James Clerk Maxwell united the separate electric & magnetic fields intoa single electromagnetism force.In 1967 a theory was proposed by “Dr. Abdus Salam”, “Stephen Weinberg”.According to this theory the weak & electromagnetism forces could be regarded a partof a single force called electroweak force.

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