Columns in a structure is to act as vertical supports to suspendedmembers such as beams and roofs and to transmit the loads from thesemembers to the foundations. Columns are primarily compression membersalthough they may also have to resist bending moments transmitted bybeams.Columns may be classified as short or slender, braced or unbraced,depending on various dimensional and structural factors. Most columnsare termed short columns and fail when the materials reaches its ultimatecapacity under the applied loads and moments. Slender columns buckleand the additional moments caused by deflection must be taken intoaccount in design.The column section is generally square or rectangular, but circular and polygonal columns are used in special cases. When the sectioncarries mainly axial load it is symmetrically reinforced with four, six, eightor more bars held in a cage by links.In this lecture, the study will be restricted to the design of the mostcommon type of column found in building structures, namely short-bracedcolumns.Short-braced column designFor design purposes, BS 8110 divides short-braced columns intothree categories. These are :1.columns resisting axial loads only;2.columns supporting an approximately symmmetricallyarrangement of beams3.columns resisting axial loads and uniaxial or biaxial bending.Longitudinal reinforcementSize and minimum number of bars.Refer to Cl. 188.8.131.52Reinforcement areasRefer to Cl. 3.12.5.