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Game AI is Dead Long Live Game AI

Game AI is Dead Long Live Game AI

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Categories:Topics, Art & Design
Published by: fumengyao on Apr 03, 2010
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1541-1672/07/$25.00 © 2007 IEEE
Published by the IEEE Computer Society
Editor: Alum Preece
University of Aberdeenapreece@csd.abdn.ac.uk
Global IS
the International Game Developers Association’s Artifi-cial Intelligence Interface Standards Committee,which Iset up and chair,help to standardize and improve the ap-plicability of middleware gaming solutions. Meanwhile,most of academia seems trapped tackling problems of lim-ited use,
such as increasing some remotely relevant algo-rithms’performance by a few percentage points or pro-ducing yet another agent architecture.With industry addressing most game AI problems inseclusion and academia examining these problems half-heartedly,what hope is there for a future impact of aca-demic contributions?For techniques such as pathfinding and finite state ma-chines,I’m afraid the light we see at the end of the tunnel isan oncoming train. Why compete with a specialized mid-dleware industry on some minor efficiency gains? However,the increasing computational power now available to gameAI unlocks some great opportunities for academia.At the National University of Singapore,in our Interac-tive Intelligence Labs and multidisciplinary Games Lab,we’re pushing ahead in several areas.
 Automated content generation
With the ongoing increase in realism and high fidelity invirtual game worlds,art- and content-production costs aregetting out of hand. For example,you can no longer haveone artist paint sprites for an in-game object or create a sim-ple 3D model with a color texture. Today,for the same in-game object,you usually have an artist who paints concep-tual pictures; a modeler who designs the corresponding 3Dmodel,rigging it and producing normalmaps; an artist whoprovides various textures (such as diffuse,specular,or trans-parent); and an animator who designs the 3D model’s ani-mation,perhaps using additional expensive resources suchas motion capturing. This trend of increasing complexitywon’t end anytime soon. For example,it continues to expandbecause of the need to add physics properties to the models.At the same time,players want ever-increasing free-roaming environments. The number of necessary assetsand the additional time for design,along with increasingart and contentcomplexity,creates an enormouscost ex-plosion. It’s no wonder that each new generation of gameshas higher production costs.Consequently,
techniques are gaining pop-ularity—that is,techniques that generate art,environments,and other content automatically,reducing the amount of handcrafted art. Figure 1 shows an example of a game thatliberally applies procedural technology for its large forestareas.Large-scale automated art and contentgeneration practi-cally screams for AI technology. Sure,you can generate thecontent without AI,but AI lets designers and artists do theirwork more efficiently and increases the resulting quality. Todo this,we need to address such questions asHow do we design exciting vistas,natural-looking ter-rain,interesting city layouts,and stylish textures andanimations?How can we generate art and content that fulfills thegame’s design vision,art direction,and technicalrequirements?Designers and artists will use our tool; how does thisaffect concepts,algorithms,and interfaces?Advanced techniques might even generate new con-tent in real time during gameplay.However,let me insert a word of caution on
outcomes in procedural generation,which someview as a desirable feature (especially those with a ma-chine learning background). From a development per-spective,outcomes that the designers didn’t foresee canoften produce undesired results or break players’sus-pension of disbelief. The problem is that a game con-tains all kinds of implicitly represented mechanics andknowledge,such as which elements provide player en-tertainment,what game objects are for,or what graphical
owadays,many games use basic game AI techniquessuch as pathfinding,steering,and finite state ma-chines.
And,the number of middleware companies that fo-cus on game AI technology is growing. Initiatives such as
Game AI Is Dead.Long Live Game AI!
Alexander Nareyek,
National University of Singapore
elements mean. So,unpredictability couldlead to automatically placing a house on a“river”object or developing a very effec-tive,but boring,new strategy for playerenemies. Despite marketing slogans to thecontrary,hardly any game will thus featurethis kind of fully unpredictable AI anytimesoon.
 Automated storytelling
Depending on the game genre,having astory isn’t always important,but for ahighly emotional and meaningful experi-ence,stories play a major role.Most games feature a main storyline,per-haps with some limited branching—for ex-ample,the player can choose a good or evilpath. This limited number of player optionsis inevitable because the storyline is hand-crafted and thus an expensive component.If we want to automatically generate astory in real time during gameplay,the previ-ous warning about unpredictable outcomesapplies. Like content generation,storiesdraw on an incredible amount of implicitknowledge that we can’t fully model. So,while fully variable storytelling is far off inthe future,we don’t need to reach the HolyGrail in just one leap.For storytelling,reactive approaches,likein The Sims,which simply trigger new char-acter actions according to the current gamesituation,aren’t particularly useful becausethey don’t consider the overall player experi-ence. Much more useful is overall story plan-ning,in which we generate a storyline thatmatches the play experience that we have inmind for the overall play session and updateit if the player does something unexpected.For example,say our AI plans a story inwhich the player meets a nice princesswho is then kidnapped by an evil mage,and the player must rescue her. However,during an initial scenein which theplayeris supposed to develop some feelings for theprincess,he might instead run away withthe maid.Our AI must then replan the re-maining story,paying attention to an over-all cohesive storyexperience andstructure.Many rules exist for creating a good struc-ture for a storyline in literature and film,andmany carry over to interactive games. For ex-ample,one rule is that the player’s excitementshould steadily increase throughout the gamesession and include “whammies”every sevento 10 minutes,depending on the player’sage and demographics (see figure 2). So,if the player runs away with the maid,in replan-ning the story,the AI must stick to the sametension curve—for example,changing thehigh-energy point of the princess’s kidnap-ping to a situation where the maid’s husbandcomes after the player.I won’t get into further details,but de-pending on which variety level you’re aim-ing for,you can add procedural set genera-tion,automated dialogue generation,andmuch more. Automated storytelling for gamesis a huge task and will present research chal-lenges for many years to come.
 Virtual actors
Of course,there’s no story without peo-ple (or orcs,or aliens,or whatever). Andagain,I’m not talking about simple finite-state machines or reactively triggeredscripts for realizing characters’behaviors.Nonplayer characters in computer gamesshould ideally be much more than the sim-ple reactive punching bags in most of today’s games.As a simple example,say we want a mon-ster to consider what action to take to getthrough a door that the player is blocking. Interms of AI,this is a relatively easy mech-anical reasoning task. However,it takesmuch more than such mechanical reasoningto realize nonplayer characters,which is whywe call such characters
virtual actors
. Theynot only need to act in a goal-driven way thatmakes sense to the user but must also displayconvincing emotions and personality,fill aspecific character role,and actively drive the
Figure 1. A screenshot of the game The Elder Scrolls IV: Oblivion, which applies proceduraltechnology for forest areas.
TimeTension/energyStart of play sessionEnd of play session
Figure 2. Applying a storytelling rule to gaming: the player’s excitement shouldsteadily increase with spikes in excitement every seven to 10 minutes.

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