PART I. PSPICE FUNDAMENTALSI. Introductory Remarks
A. Spice, PSpice and Schematics
Spice (Simulation Program with IntegratedCircuit Emphasis) was developed at theUniversity of California at Berkeley. Itquickly became an industry standard for simulating integrated circuits and is stilldistributed at low cost (comparatively) togovernment facilities such as universities.As the electronics industry advanced, severalcompanies began to sell PC and Macintoshcompatible versions of Spice. One suchcompany, ORCAD Corporation, produces aPC compatible version called PSpice. Inthis tutorial, we are using the
, which is free from ORCAD viaeither CD or download. (Go to ORCAD’swebsite to request the CD or download thesoftware directly.)In Spice, circuit information such as thenames and values of resistors and sourcesand how they were connected is input usingdata statements with a specific format.Particulars for every element must be typedin the exact proper order. This makesdebugging difficult since you have to knowthe proper format to recognize the mistakesyou might make in formatting! Anadvancement in PSpice is a program, called
, which bypasses the crypticformatting, allowing you to draw the circuitdiagram and assign element values via user-friendly dialog boxes. ORCAD packages
in a ‘software suite’ thatincludes PSPICE (the simulation engine)and PROBE (a plotting utility). Learning touse
and its support programs iswhat this tutorial is all about
B. Font Conventions
Since we’ll be discussing text you mightneed to type into dialog boxes within
as well as text the program itself will return to the screen, the following fontsare adopted.
All text you type in will inthis font
All text the program returns will be in this font.
Finally, all the text contained in dialogboxes and menus will be in this font.
C. The Passive Sign Convention andPSpice
All currents and voltages in PSpice and
obey the passive sign conventionshown in Figure 1. The voltage across theelement is defined positive at node
withrespect to node
. Obviously, the orderingof the nodes is quite important. In fact,we’ll return to this concept of node
several times. If
as calculated byPSpice is positive, then PSpice will return a positive number. If the current valuereturned by PSpice is positive, then currentflows in at node
and out of node
. For example, if we ask PSpice its calculationsfor
and it said, -4.5 and 2.2E-3, weknow that node
is 4.5 V positive withrespect to node
and a current of 2.2 mAflows from
. In other words, theelement is a source.