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Automobile 424

Automobile 424

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Published by Raj K Gupta

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Categories:Topics, Art & Design
Published by: Raj K Gupta on Apr 14, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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1.1: The Beginning of New Era…
With the invention of the wheel in 4000 BC, man’s journey on the road of mechanized transport had begun. Since then he continually sought to devise anautomated, labor saving machine to replace the horse. Innumerable attempts reachedconclusion in the early 1760s with the building of the first steam driven tractor by aFrench Captain, Nicolas Jacob Cugnot. It was however left to Karl Benz and GottliebDamlier to produce the first vehicles powered by the internal combustion engine in 1885.It was then that the petrol engine was introduced, which made the car a practical and safe proposition. Then onwards, it has been one big journey...on the roads
1.2: History of Automobile Industry
The automobile as we know it was not invented in a single day by a single inventor. Thehistory of the automobile reflects an evolution that took place worldwide. It is estimatedthat over 100,000 patents created the modern automobile. However, we can point to themany firsts that occurred along the way. Starting with the first theoretical plans for amotor vehicle that had been drawn up by both Leonardo da Vinci and Isaac Newton.In 1769, the very first self-propelled road vehicle was a military tractor invented byFrench engineer and mechanic, Nicolas Joseph Cugnot (1725 - 1804). Cugnot used asteam engine to power his vehicle, built under his instructions at the Paris Arsenal by1
mechanic Brezin. It was used by the French Army to haul artillery at a whopping speedof 2 1/2 mph on only three wheels. The vehicle had to stop every ten to fifteen minutes to build up steam power. The steam engine and boiler were separate from the rest of thevehicle and placed in the front (see engraving above). The following year (1770), Cugnot built a steam-powered tricycle that carried four passengers.In 1771, Cugnot drove one of his road vehicles into a stone wall, making Cugnotthe first person to get into a motor vehicle accident. This was the beginning of bad luck for the inventor. After one of Cugnot's patrons died and the other was exiled, the moneyfor Cugnot's road vehicle experiments ended.Steam engines powered cars by burning fuel that heated water in a boiler, creatingsteam that expanded and pushed pistons that turned the crankshaft, which then turned thewheels. During the early history of self-propelled vehicles - both road andrailroad vehicles were being developed with steam engines. (Cugnot also designed two steamlocomotives with engines that never worked well.) Steam engines added so much weightto a vehicle that they proved a poor design for road vehicles; however, steam engineswere very successfully used in locomotives. Historians, who accept that early steam- powered road vehicles were automobiles, feel that
Nicolas Cugnot was the inventor of the first automobile
.The automotive industry has certain trends it has to follow, just like fashiondesigners and musical composers. In times of recession and decreasing sales there is lessroom to take chances and manufacturers are prone to follow the common pattern as asafer bet rather than releasing a controversial product or idea that might or might not besuccessful. However throughout the automotive industry's history, great innovators have"boldly gone where no man has gone before" to set new trends which have dynamicallyaltered the industry as a whole.
1880's & early 1900's
About hundred years ago-The first motor car was imported2
-Import duty on vehicles was introduced.-Indian Great Royal Road (Predecessor of the Grand Trunk Road) was conceived.
First car brought in India by a princely ruler in 1898.
Simpson & Co established in 1840.-They were the first to build a steam car and a steam bus, to attempt motor car manufacture, to build and operate petrol driven passenger service and to importAmerican Chassis in India.
Railways first came to India in 1850's
In 1865 Col. Rookes Crompton introduced public transport wagons strapped toand pulled by imported steam road rollers called streamers. The maximum speedof these buses was 33 kms/hr.
From 1888 Motors Spirit attracted a substantial import duty.
In 1919 at the end of the war, a large number of military vehicles came on theroads.
In 1928 assembly of CKD Trucks and Cars was started by the wholly ownedIndian subsidiary of American General Motors in Bombay and in 1930-31 byCanadian Ford Motors in Madras, Bombay and Calcutta In 1935 the proposals of Sir M Visvesvaraya to set up an Automobile Industry were disallowed.
1942 Hindustan Motors Ltd incorporated and their first vehicle was made in 1950.
In 1944 Premier Automobiles Ltd incorporated and in 1947 their first vehicle was produced.
In 1947 the Government of Bombay accepted a scheme of Bajaj Auto to replacethe cycle rickshaw by the auto and assembly started in a couple of years under alicense from Piaggio. Manufacturing Programme for the auto and scooter wassubmitted in 1953 to the Tariff Commission and approved by the Government in1959.
In 1953 the Government decreed that only firms having a manufacturing programme should be allowed to operate and mere assemblers of imported CKDunits be asked to terminate operations in three years.
Only seven firms namely Hindustan Motors Limited, Automobile Products of India Limited, Ashok Leyland Limited, Standard Motors Products of India3

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