A communication model (elements of data communication)
The fundamental purpose of a communication system is the exchange of data betweentwo parties. E.g. the exchange of data between server and a workstation over a publictelephone line. Another example is the exchange of voice signals between two telephonesover the same network. The key elements of data communication model are as follows:
This device generates the data to be transmitted. Examples are of telephones and personal computers.
this device transmits the data generated by the source device.Usually, the data generated by a source system are not transmitted directly in theform in which the data was generated. Rather, a transmitter transforms andencodes he data in such a way that data can be transmitted across a transmissionsystem (media). E.g. a modem takes digital data from a computer and transformsthat digital bit stream into an analog signal that can be handled by the analogtelephone network.
this is the path the data follows to reach the destinationdevice. This can be a single transmission line or a complex network connectingsource and destination devices.
the receiver accepts the signals from the transmission system andconverts it into a form that can be handled by the destination device. For example,a modem will accept analog signals from transmission line (telephone network)and will convert it into a digital bit stream so that a device such as a computer canhandle it.
this device takes the incoming signals from the receiver.
Data communication networks
In its simplest form data communication takes place between two devices thatare directly connected by some form of point-to-point transmission medium.Often, however, it is impractical for two devices to be directly, point-to-pointconnected because of the following reasons:1.The devices are very far apart. It would be vary expensive, for example,to provide a dedicated link between two devices thousands of miles apart.2. There is a set of devices, each of which may require a link to many other devices at various times. Examples are all of the telephones in the worldand all of the terminals and computers owned by an organization. Exceptfor the case of a very few devices, it is impractical to provide a dedicatedlink between each pair of devices.The solution to this problem is to attach each device to a communication network.Communication networks are traditionally classified into the following two major categories:
LAN (Local area networks):
the scope of a local area network is small. A localarea network is a number of computers and other devices connected to each other 11