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What Are Abzyme

What Are Abzyme

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Published by: zakiarbsb on Apr 20, 2010
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04/09/2014

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Abzyme
An abzyme (fromantibodyandenzyme), also called
catmab
(from
catalytic monoclonal antibody
), is amonoclonal antibodywithcatalytic activity.Molecules which are modified to gain new catalytic activity are calledsynzymes. Abzymes are usually artificial constructs, but are also found in normal humans (anti-vasoactive intestinal peptide autoantibodies) and in patients withautoimmune diseasessuch as systemiclupus erythematosus, where they can bind to and hydrolyzeDNA. Abzymes are potential tools in  biotechnology, e.g., to perform specific actions on DNA.
PRINCIPLE:
Lowering activation energy
Stabilizing less favorable intermediates
NATURALLY OCCURING
:
Antibodies with catalytic activities were isolated from sera of patients with different diseases.The first natural abzymes were obtained by means of antibody purification from humanserum.
Antibodies with protease activity against vasoactif intestinal peptide (VIP) were first isolatedin the serum of patients withasthma.
This VIP-ase activity was also shown to be present on proteins, that are monoclonal humanlight chains found in urine of patients withmultiple myeloma.
Other protease activities were characterized for cleaving of throglobulin in the serum of  patients withHashimoto thyroiditis,or for hydrolyzing factor VIII in hemophilia patientsinfused withhomologous factor VIII.
DNA hydrolyzing autoantibodies were also isolated from the sera of patients with systemiclupus erythematosus or rheumatoid arthritis.
APPLICATIONS
:
Great potential in the pharmaceutical industries.
Detoxification of cocaine.
Specific targeting of cancer cells unique determinants, called tumor cell antigens, on their surfacethat are lacking in normal cells.
One application could concern the use of hydrolytic properties of abzymes to activate prodrugs.By targeting this activity in the vicinity to tumor cells, prodrugs could be transformed intocytotoxic compounds directly on tumor cells.This anti-cancer therapy is designed as Antibody-Directed Abzyme Prodrug Therapy (ADAPT).

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