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Contributors in Tranlsation

Contributors in Tranlsation

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Published by Jen
John Dryden, Martin Luther, Samuel Johnson
John Dryden, Martin Luther, Samuel Johnson

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Categories:Types, Research, History
Published by: Jen on Jun 28, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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John DrydenPoet, dramatist, critic, and translator; b. 9 August, 1631, at Oldwinkle All Saints, Northamptonshire,England; d. atLondon, 30 April, 1700. He was the son of ErasmusDryden (or Driden) and Mary Pickering, daughter of the Rev. Henry Pickering.ErasmusDryden was the son of Sir ErasmusDryden, and was a justiceof the peace under Cromwell. On both sides Dryden'sfamilywere of the Parliamentary party. He received his earlyeducationas a king's scholar atWestminster and while there his first published work appeared. This was an elegy contributed in 1649 to the "Lachrymæ Musarum",a collection of tributes in memory of Henry, Lord Hastings. He entered Trinity College, Cambridge, 18May, 1650, being elected to a scholarship on 2 October. He graduated as Bachelor of Arts, January,1653-4, and after inheriting from hisfather a small estate worth £60 annually, he returned toCambridge, living there until 1655. The "Heroic Stanzas" on the death of Oliver Cromwell, his firstimportant work (1658), are smooth and vigorous, and while laudatory, are not meanly so. There is noattack on royalty and no mention of Cromwell's religion. Dryden always was in favour of authority andof peace from civil strife, and consequently when disorders broke out upon Cromwell's death, he, withthe rest of the nation, welcomed the return of Charles II. He celebrated the king's return with his poemof "Astræa Redux" (1660), in which he already showed his mastery of the rhymed couplet. Thenfollowed his poems on the "Coronation" (1661); "To Lord Clarendon" (1662); "To Dr. Charleton"(1663); "To the Duchess of York" (1665); and "Annus Mirabilis" (1667). His great prose "Essay onDramatick Poesie" appeared in 1668. Meantime, in 1662, Dryden had been elected to the RoyalSociety, and on 1 December, 1663, he was married to Lady Elizabeth Howard, eldest daughter of theEarl of Berkshire.With his remarkable power of adaptation Dryden now gave his attention to another literary form, thatof translation. He had before this, in 1680, made some translations of Ovid; and in the "Miscellanies"of 1684 and 1685, and of 1693 and 1694 there are specimens of Ovid, Horace, Homer, Theocritus andLucretius, which, together with his more complete translations of Virgil and Juvenal, make a total of about 30,000 lines. In July, 1697, the "Pastorals", the "Georgics", and the "Æneid" of Virgil were published, and the edition was sold off in about six months. Meanwhile, in 1692, Dryden hadcomposed an elegy on Eleonora, Countess of Abingdon, for which he received 500 guineas. About thistime, also, he wrote his famous address to Congreve on the failure of the "Double Dealer". In 1699, atthe close of his life, he published his "Fables". This volume contained five paraphrases of Chaucer, three of Boccaccio, besides the first book of the "Iliad", and "Alexander's Feast", perhaps his greatestlyrical poem, written in 1697 for a musicalsocietyinLondonwhich celebratedSt. Cecilia'sday. Dryden had also written the ode for the celebration in 1687 by the samesociety. Dryden did not longsurvive the publication of his last book. He died of inflammation caused by gout, and was buried inWestminster Abbey.CiceroMarcus Tullius Cicero was born on January 3, 106 BC and was murdered on December 7, 43 BC. Hislife coincided with the decline and fall of the Roman Republic, and he was an important actor in manyof the significant political events of his time (and his writings are now a valuable source of informationto us about those events). He was, among other things, an orator, lawyer, politician, and philosopher.Making sense of his writings and understanding his philosophy requires us to keep that in mind. He placed politics above philosophical study; the latter was valuable in its own right but was even morevaluable as the means to more effective political action. The only periods of his life in which he wrote
 philosophical works were the times he was forcibly prevented from taking part in politics.The standard versions of Cicero’s writings in English are still the Loeb editions of the HarvardUniversity Press. They include the Latin text on the left hand pages and the English translation on theright hand pages, which is obviously of particular use to one who knows or is learning Latin. There areLoeb editions of all of Cicero’s speeches, letters, and philosophical writings known to exist, and theywere the main sources for this article. The Perseus Project includes Cicero’s writings in its onlinearchives. The series of 
Cambridge Texts in the History of Political Thought 
has recently added editionsof 
On the Commonwealth and On the Laws
(in one volume, edited by James E.G. Zetzel) and
On Duties
(edited by M.T. Griffin and E.M. Atkins). These volumes include the Cambridge series’ usualexcellent introductions and background material and were also helpful in preparing this article. TheOxford World’s Classics series has recently released a new translation of 
On the Commonwealth
On the Laws
(edited by Jonathan Powell and Niall Rudd); while its supplemental material is not asthorough as that of the Cambridge edition, it is still worth reading.Samuel JohnsonSamuel Johnson was born on September 18, 1709 in Lichfield in the Midlands. His father ran anunsuccessful bookstore, where the young Johnson spent many hours reading. He was a brilliant pupil inhis local school and continued on excelling as a student at Oxford University but because of poverty hedid not complete his degree.As a child he as often ill, which damaged his hearing and sight. He therefore found it hard to get a job.When he was 28 years old, he moved to London. For almost ten years he worked as a journalist,writing essays and articles. He also found time to write poetry, biographies and translated works of other writers and poets, in particular, the works of ancient Roman satirist Juvenal. Johnson continued to be poor until the government provided him a pension for his services to literature. By this time, he was53.Dr. Johnson’s Poetry, Translations and DictionaryJohnson’s first major published poem,
is an imitation of the Roman writer Juvenal’s
Third Satire
. It came out when Johnson was 29. It was not as good or successful as his second imitation, alsoa Juvenal satire,
The Vanity of Human Wishes
. This poem shows how people's desires can lead to betrayal.Samuel Johnson’s good judgment and writings are best seen in his book 
 Lives of the English Poets
.Seven years of work went into his
 Dictionary of the English Language
, his best work. It became aclassic, the first of its kind that defines over 40,000 words.Martin Luther 
Martin Luther
(Nov 10, 1483 - Feb 18, 1546) was a German theologian, an Augustinian monk, and anecclesiastical reformer whose teachings inspired theReformationand deeply influenced the doctrinesand culture of the Lutheran and Protestant traditions. Luther's call to the Church to return to theteachings of theBibleled to the formation of new traditions within Christianity and to the Counter-Reformation, theRoman Catholicreaction to these movements.Luther's contributions to Western civilization went beyond the life of the Christian Church. Luther'stranslations of the Bible helped to develop a standard version of the German language and addedseveral principles to the art of translation. Luther's hymns inspired the development of congregationalsinging in Christianity. His marriage on June 13, 1525, to Katharina von Bora began a movement of clerical marriage within many Christian traditions.

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