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whole process of cheese

whole process of cheese

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Published by: 4gen_1 on Jul 08, 2010
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11/14/2013

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Many traditions, little story
Job Polyphemus and cheese, an unusual result of bacterial alchemy that turns a l
iquid into a solid mass perishable storable for a long time, was considered unti
l recently a very noble food, enough to allow a limited number of tracks Western
history and literature, especially compared to other foods such as bread, wine
or meat. His ancestors were born by chance and were an initial curiosity and dis
trust, the first cheese known to man, in prehistoric times, was probably formed
by stomach contents of a baby animal. In Sardinia today a similar preparation, t
he de Callu Crabettu (these kids stomachs of dried whole milk which is coagulate
d in them), is considered a rare delicacy by the shepherds who produce for own c
onsumption. When civilizations of the Middle East developed writing dairy produc
ts were, however, already a reality. A passage from the Bible even compares thei
r work to the growth of the fetus in the womb: I-fact you have a particular like
milk and curdled me like cheese-Job says to God about your own conception and b
irth. Words that could only say who was hit by the phenomenon of coagulation of
milk, before which really seems to assist the formation of something new compare
d to the raw material of origin. Further West, the art of cheese reached greater
perfection, touching even the world of epic poems. In the Odyssey the cave of P
olyphemus is the first dairy to a known description: The mats were burdened by c
heese in crowded pens lambs and kids ... The well-made containers such as bucket
s tubs milked all filled with serum. The evil Cyclops shepherd-cheese maker skil
led in their craft but little violence against civil aviation. perhaps in this f
amous episode Homer floats already an echo of a veiled polemic against the chees
e: a food barbarians living creatures incapable evolved society which is precise
ly the savage Polyphemus. A name that dairy products have difficulty taking off
off. The ancient Rome caseus Processing cheese was known to the Romans who sprea
d knowledge and techniques for most of their empire as evidence of diffusion of
the term caseus (-cheese-Latin) almost all European languages: English cheese to
German kse al'olandesel kaas from Spanish queso Portuguese queijo. only france
northern Italy (in Italian living with cheese spread Centrosud) prevailed from t
he Latin word probably born late formaticum rooted these areas use large forms (
bands) to prepare cheese. producing dairy cow is (just because cattle are used m
ainly labor camps) consumed fresh sheep or goat cheese. Varro (first century BC)
mentions, curd was then boiled smoking: it may be ancestor of spun paste. colum
ella d. describes in detail seasoning

_-
-Seller of cheese and butter: century fresco preserved in Issogne Castle in Val d
'Aosta.
-mondolatte.it © EOS Publishing all rights reserved 2005 book on Italian cheese

The raw material
The origins, milk. According to a Royal Decree of 1925, after never amended, und
er the name "cheese" in Italy can be shipped only product of the acid or rennet
coagulation of milk. Ricotta (obtained by heating the whey) or mascarpone (produ
ced by coagulation of cream) are therefore not strictly speaking of cheese, thou
gh - not without reason - as dairy products are united them, as also decided to
make this site. The acid or rennet coagulation, which is discussed in more detai
l later, is, despite the variety of processing techniques, a relatively simple p
rocess. The basic ingredients are so few cheese. Indeed, only three: the curd, i
e substances that have the power to coagulate the protein component of milk, sal
t and milk itself, the most important element. The dairy par excellence: the cow
. Cow's milk has long been the most widely used in Europe not only for making ch
eese, but also as a simple drink, or as raw material for derivatives such as cre

am, butter, cheese and yogurt. Compared with the milk of other animals has the u ndoubted advantage of being available in larger quantities and relatively consta nt throughout the year. The cow, however, large animals with special needs in te rms of quantity and quality of grass or fodder with which it feeds,€can generall y be brought only where environmental conditions allow the existence of abundant pastures. Therefore the breeding of dairy cows is more developed in northern It aly, with consequences on production of cow's milk cheeses. The first of seniori ty: the sheep. The sheep is, unlike the cow, an animal whose milk production ten ds to have a seasonal pattern, declining or even failing in the summer. Milk giv es a very distinctive flavor and intense, only used for cheese production. Due t o its smaller food needs is more widespread, ancient tradition, in central-south ern Italy and islands (especially Sardinia), poor regions of grassland suitable for cattle vaccine. Precisely for this reason and for the possibility of using i t for the production of wool, was certainly one of the first animals bred. Victi mized: the goat. The goats are currently present in Italy in relatively limited quantities and as a result of precise agricultural policy in the first half of t he twentieth century were in fact conducted successful campaigns to discourage b reeding, then felt bad for the agricultural land and forestry, so that only in r ecent years their number has increased again. In reality it is an animal that ca n graze on land unsuitable for

---mondolatte.it © EOS Publishing all rights reserved 2005 book on Italian cheese

Pasteurized milk. Pasteurization (physical process that involves heating milk to about 72 degrees for twenty to thirty seconds, so as to eliminate any type of b acteria) has, among many advantages, a serious flaw: to damage irreparably, in a ddition to good of the vitamins, the bacterial flora "useful", which gives it sp ecial and noble cheese. The taste of dairy products pasteurized milk is so great ly compressed compared to their counterparts in raw milk that is unpasteurized. At this point it makes no sense to speak of authenticity, ie the origin of the m ilk from a particular area: after all pasteurized milk are almost equal. Raw mil k. Only with due attention to the health of livestock and the observance of cert ain rules of hygiene laws, now very strict pasteurization process becomes superf luous: raw milk is therefore still used for the production of cheese, although i n this If the implementation of particular measures affect the cost of the finis hed product. Pasteurization is also omitted without problems in products destine d for long aging, given that any pathogens can survive for only a relatively sho rt time. Groped to reproduce the characteristics of raw milk is used in many pro cesses have to add special lactic acid bacteria to pasteurized milk: the bacteri al flora typical of a certain environment or a particular breed of animals is st ill successfully reproduced artificially. We must however keep in mind that the phrase "raw milk" is not in itself guarantee a high quality raw material: to pro ve that raw milk must be fresh and it worked a short distance from the productio n site, avoiding transport for long journeys capable of altering its properties. Skimming. The skimmed milk is the elimination of a greater or lesser fraction o f its fat component. This process usually occurs in the traditional way, that is surfacing, letting it rest for a few hours at a temperature below 10-12 ° in a vessel off the bottom and milked milk: fat globules, lighter than the watery par t, tend to to surface, forming the cream or cream, which is removed using a spec ial tool. Skimming can also occur by centrifugation mechanics, and in this case the cream will be more flavorful, but at the expense of milk residue.

Skimmed milk and butter production in pasture.
mondolatte.it © EOS Publishing all rights reserved 2005 book on Italian cheese

The cheese
The rennet. Curdle milk (that is, in essence, make cheese) means to separate the
lipid and protein component from the water. Several plant extracts, such as lat
ex content in unripe figs, or the juice extracted from flowers of thistle or art
ichoke were used in the past by many cultures farmers like rennet cheap: the sam
e pure milk left for a few days to ' open air at room temperature,€is curdled by
the lactic acid that occurs naturally inside the action of certain bacteria (th
is process is called "acid coagulation, and it's yogurt, which under Italian law
, despite what you might think, is cheese). But the rennet more effective and po
werful in nature consists of the gastric juices of the stomach of suckling mamma
ls, essential for digestion of their staple food. For millennia, man has learned
to exploit its properties. The substance most commonly used as rennet is theref
ore known as rennet, a paste, a powder or a liquid obtained by processing the st
omachs of lambs, calves or kids. The kid's rennet, more effective than all the o
thers, gives a strong flavor to the cheese, so that, when processing requests so
explicitly, it is preferred to the calf. Only in a few cases, such as mascarpon
e, and had prevailed in the habit of using more neutral tasting substances such
as vinegar or citric acid. Coagulation. Renneting results, in a variable time de
pending on the amount of milk and rennet used, temperature and other conditions
still one of the components of the coagulation of milk protein (casein), which f
orms a lattice which is also part of the trapped fat: milk splits as a semi-soli
d mass of white, curd, and a residue fluid darker serum, yet rich in sugars and
proteins. The curd is usually broken with a tool to facilitate its separation fr
om whey: depending on the size of the granules to be reached we will use the "th
orn", whose shape is inspired by that branch of hawthorn used dry in ancient tim
es, the "pound", so named for the appearance reminiscent of the eponymous musica
l instrument, or "sword" that cuts the curd into chunks. Cooking and pressing th
e dough.

Some of the tools used for breaking the curd.
Coagulation
Extraction of the curd by hand from the boiler
Before squeezing the curd
Pressing
Top and bottom: the shaping. Note the use of molds
mondolatte.it © EOS Publishing all rights reserved 2005 book on Italian cheese

Environments. Although many cheeses are consumed fresh, within days of their pro duction, the most common practice is to make them mature for a period can vary f rom weeks to 1-2 years and, in exceptional cases, up to four and beyond. This pr actice was born of practical needs: milk production tends to be seasonal, with p eaks of quality and quantity during the spring and summer, and only with its pre servation was possible to distribute the cheese consumption throughout the year. Curing must always be in suitable, with cool temperature, usually around 10-15 degrees, and humidity high and constant (before the advent of refrigeration oper ation took place in natural caves or artificial, occasionally still used ). Duri ng aging the cheeses are turned over regularly to prevent bulging on the outside . Care of the crust. To prevent excessive growth of mold or attack by pests such as mites, soft rind cheeses are occasionally washed with a solution of water an d salt, and to prevent those cracks and crevices in hard crust are anointed with oily substances. For this operation normally takes place in the oils of seeds, but there are many alternatives (olive oil, animal fat ...) depending on the typ

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