The sets of words of these different substrates are listed and explained in separate documents. It canbe noted that the South-West-Block Gaulish and the Satem Gaulish are both fairly un-Celtic-looking,especially the SWB which displays many more signs of fortition than of lenition.
The location of the substrates
Thanks to the description of Caesar, we already have some indications about ethnocultural andethnolinguistic differences on the present-day territory of France during the first millenium BC.First of all there is the area called
at the north between the Seine, Marne and Mosellerivers and the Rhine river. We have already implied that this area is that of the Satem Belgian Gaulish.The reasons to identify
as the area of SBG are the following names :- Parisii < *parikyo. Whatever its exact meaning, it seems more natural to suppose a standard IEderivative with -kyo than with -syo.- the Moselle (< Mosella) and Meuse (< Mosa) rivers can derive from Pok744 *mouk-eH
'wet',- the Somme (< Samara) river can derive from Pok524 *kaməreH
'curved river', well attested inother toponymical formations.The next point is the location of the SWB, which seems to have occupied the room around theLoire river, from Brittany to the Alps, according to the following words :- French hydronym
< *liger < Pok854 *reg/rek 'damp, wet'. The variant *leker is attested inBrittany
'heap of sand and stones in the Loire riverbed' < Cf. Greek *khaliks 'stone'. Cf. LTG
'stone' < *kaljawo-.- French oronym
'mountains' < Latin Alpis < *ardwi- 'mountain' < Pok339 *erH-. Cf. LTG
. The derivation alpi < *ardwi supposes that *dw > b > p.- French
'mountain shelter' < *kalittu < *ğhor-etos < Pok442 *ğher-.In our opinion, the core area of LTG, which are the only true-born Celts in our scenario, was limitedto the north-west by the SBG area and to the west and south by the SWB area. Naturally, this scenariodoes not mean that they were exclusively populated by either SBG or SWB speakers. On the contrary,it seems probable that these areas were mixed, with possible residual speakers of Paleo-Europeanlanguages and with people speaking the other varieties, LTG, SWB and SBG. It may be hypothesizedthat the voiceless tendencies of the SWB language are possibly due to the Paleo-European substrateupon which it has developed. If we follow the ethnocultural indications of Caesar, the LTG and SWB"Gaulish" people were indeed closer to each other than to SBG people, who did not call themselves
.In our scenario, the original area of the North-West-Block is on the other side of the Rhine at thenorth-east of the SBG area. For the time being, we have not dealt with other groups possibly requiringthe same kind of analysis in Spain, Great Britain or Italy.