, 337–343 (2008)
2008 by Radiation Research Society.All rights of reproduction in any form reserved.
Inﬂuence of Electromagnetic Fields Emitted by GSM-900 CellularTelephones on the Circadian Patterns of Gonadal, Adrenal andPituitary Hormones in Men
and Rene´ de Seze
Faculte´ de Me´decine Pierre et Marie Curie, Service de Biochimie Me´dicale et Biologie Mole´culaire, INSERM U713, 75013, Paris, France; and
Unite´ de Toxicologie Expe´rimentale et Pre´dictive, INERIS, Parc technologique ALATA, 60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte, France
Djeridane, Y., Touitou, Y. and de Seze, R. Inﬂuence of Elec-tromagnetic Fields Emitted by GSM-900 Cellular Telephoneson the Circadian Patterns of Gonadal, Adrenal and PituitaryHormones in Men.
169, 337–343 (2008).The potential health risks of radiofrequency electromag-netic ﬁelds (RF EMFs) emitted by mobile phones are cur-rently of considerable public interest. The present study in-vestigated the effect of exposure to 900 MHz GSM radiofre-quency radiation on steroid (cortisol and testosterone) andpituitary (thyroid-stimulating hormone, growth hormone,prolactin and adrenocorticotropin) hormone levels in 20healthy male volunteers. Each subject was exposed to RFEMFs through the use of a cellular phone for 2 h/day, 5 days/ week, for 4 weeks. Blood samples were collected hourly duringthe night and every 3 h during the day. Four sampling sessionswere performed at 15-day intervals: before the beginning of the exposure period, at the middle and the end of the exposureperiod, and 15 days later. Parameters evaluated included themaximum serum concentration, the time of this maximum,and the area under the curve for hormone circadian patterns.Each individual’s pre-exposure hormone concentration wasused as his control. All hormone concentrations remainedwithin normal physiological ranges. The circadian proﬁles of prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropinand testosterone were not disrupted by RF EMFs emitted bymobile phones. For growth hormone and cortisol, there weresigniﬁcant decreases of about 28% and 12%, respectively, inthe maximum levels when comparing the 2-week (for growthhormone and cortisol) and 4-week (for growth hormone) ex-posure periods to the pre-exposure period, but no differencepersisted in the postexposure period. Our data show that the900 MHz EMF exposure, at least under our experimental con-ditions, does not appear to affect endocrine functions in men.
2008 by Radiation Research Society
Epidemiological studies and others (
) have enabledinternational bodies such as the International Commission
Address for correspondence: Faculte´ de Me´decine Pierre et MarieCurie, Service de Biochimie Me´dicale et Biologie Mole´culaire, INSERMU713, 91, Boulevard de l’Hoˆpital, 75013, Paris, France; e-mail:firstname.lastname@example.org.
on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection and the EuropeanCommission to establish recommendations for public ex-posure to EMFs to ensure a high level of safety (
). Theextensive use of mobile phones has been accompanied bypublic debate about possible adverse effects on humanhealth. However, there is experimental evidence to showthat 900 MHz EMFs do not affect levels of melatonin inhumans (
) and rodents (
), 6-sulfatoxymelatonin inrats (
), cortisol in humans (
), and some pituitaryhormones such as thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH),growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), luteotropic hor-mone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and adre-nocorticotropin (ACTH) in humans (
). Other studiesusing rats report a decrease in the levels of the pituitaryhormones TSH, LH and FSH (
) as well as testoster-one (
). The purpose of the present study was to examinethe effect of 900 MHz radiofrequency (RF) EMFs emittedby GSM mobile telephones on the circadian patterns of steroid (cortisol and testosterone) and pituitary (TSH, GH,PRL and ACTH) hormones in healthy men.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Twenty healthy male volunteers who were 20–32 years old participatedin this study. Their health status was ascertained by both clinical androutine biological examinations. The main exclusion criteria were nightor shift work, stressful work, frequent exposure to unusually high-inten-sity electromagnetic ﬁelds at any frequency (static, extremely low-fre-quency or RF), mobile phone use prior to entering the study and duringthe study other than that prescribed by the study, diseases of the ear, noseand throat, endocrine disorders, neuropsychiatric disease, unusual sleeppatterns, and recent transcontinental ﬂight. The protocol was approved bythe Ethics Committee of Nıˆmes University Hospital and was performedaccording to ethical guidelines dealing with research on biologicalrhythms in humans (
The phone tested was the Motorola 8200 cellular radiotelephone, whichoperates near 900 MHz and employs the GSM system (Global Systemfor Mobile communication), 217 Hz modulation frequency, 1/8 duty fac-tor, 2 W maximal peak power, corresponding to a time-averaged absorbedpower (speciﬁc absorption rate averaged over 10 g, SAR
) in the tem-