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Influence of EMF Emitted by GSM-900 Cellular Telephones on Circadian Patterns

Influence of EMF Emitted by GSM-900 Cellular Telephones on Circadian Patterns

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Published by karlmalatesta
The compromise of the endocrine function and in particular, of the Growth Hormone and Cortisol, is serious enough to generate a ban of the use of cell phones. The authors maintain double position when arriving to their conclusions. The recognize that both cortisol and GH are seriously affected and then they try to minimize this effect.
The endocrine system is exquisitely sensitive to cell phone radiation. This jeopardizes the structure and function of the thyroid gland in cell phone users. Not only that, but the presence of uveal melanomas in the eye as a direct consequence of the use of cell phones is tragic enough to forbid this wireless technology.
The compromise of the endocrine function and in particular, of the Growth Hormone and Cortisol, is serious enough to generate a ban of the use of cell phones. The authors maintain double position when arriving to their conclusions. The recognize that both cortisol and GH are seriously affected and then they try to minimize this effect.
The endocrine system is exquisitely sensitive to cell phone radiation. This jeopardizes the structure and function of the thyroid gland in cell phone users. Not only that, but the presence of uveal melanomas in the eye as a direct consequence of the use of cell phones is tragic enough to forbid this wireless technology.

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Published by: karlmalatesta on Jul 30, 2010
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337
RADIATION RESEARCH
169
, 337–343 (2008)
0033-7587/08 $15.00
2008 by Radiation Research Society.All rights of reproduction in any form reserved.
Influence of Electromagnetic Fields Emitted by GSM-900 CellularTelephones on the Circadian Patterns of Gonadal, Adrenal andPituitary Hormones in Men
Yasmina Djeridane,
a
Yvan Touitou
a,
1
and Rene´ de Seze
b
a
Faculte´ de Me´decine Pierre et Marie Curie, Service de Biochimie Me´dicale et Biologie Mole´culaire, INSERM U713, 75013, Paris, France; and 
b
Unite´ de Toxicologie Expe´rimentale et Pre´dictive, INERIS, Parc technologique ALATA, 60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte, France
Djeridane, Y., Touitou, Y. and de Seze, R. Influence of Elec-tromagnetic Fields Emitted by GSM-900 Cellular Telephoneson the Circadian Patterns of Gonadal, Adrenal and PituitaryHormones in Men.
Radiat. Res.
169, 337–343 (2008).The potential health risks of radiofrequency electromag-netic fields (RF EMFs) emitted by mobile phones are cur-rently of considerable public interest. The present study in-vestigated the effect of exposure to 900 MHz GSM radiofre-quency radiation on steroid (cortisol and testosterone) andpituitary (thyroid-stimulating hormone, growth hormone,prolactin and adrenocorticotropin) hormone levels in 20healthy male volunteers. Each subject was exposed to RFEMFs through the use of a cellular phone for 2 h/day, 5 days/ week, for 4 weeks. Blood samples were collected hourly duringthe night and every 3 h during the day. Four sampling sessionswere performed at 15-day intervals: before the beginning of the exposure period, at the middle and the end of the exposureperiod, and 15 days later. Parameters evaluated included themaximum serum concentration, the time of this maximum,and the area under the curve for hormone circadian patterns.Each individual’s pre-exposure hormone concentration wasused as his control. All hormone concentrations remainedwithin normal physiological ranges. The circadian profiles of prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropinand testosterone were not disrupted by RF EMFs emitted bymobile phones. For growth hormone and cortisol, there weresignificant decreases of about 28% and 12%, respectively, inthe maximum levels when comparing the 2-week (for growthhormone and cortisol) and 4-week (for growth hormone) ex-posure periods to the pre-exposure period, but no differencepersisted in the postexposure period. Our data show that the900 MHz EMF exposure, at least under our experimental con-ditions, does not appear to affect endocrine functions in men.
2008 by Radiation Research Society
INTRODUCTION
Epidemiological studies and others (
1, 2
) have enabledinternational bodies such as the International Commission
1
Address for correspondence: Faculte´ de Me´decine Pierre et MarieCurie, Service de Biochimie Me´dicale et Biologie Mole´culaire, INSERMU713, 91, Boulevard de l’Hoˆpital, 75013, Paris, France; e-mail:touitou@ccr.jussieu.fr.
on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection and the EuropeanCommission to establish recommendations for public ex-posure to EMFs to ensure a high level of safety (
3
). Theextensive use of mobile phones has been accompanied bypublic debate about possible adverse effects on humanhealth. However, there is experimental evidence to showthat 900 MHz EMFs do not affect levels of melatonin inhumans (
4, 5
) and rodents (
6–9
), 6-sulfatoxymelatonin inrats (
10
), cortisol in humans (
5, 11
), and some pituitaryhormones such as thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH),growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), luteotropic hor-mone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and adre-nocorticotropin (ACTH) in humans (
7, 12
). Other studiesusing rats report a decrease in the levels of the pituitaryhormones TSH, LH and FSH (
13, 14
) as well as testoster-one (
14
). The purpose of the present study was to examinethe effect of 900 MHz radiofrequency (RF) EMFs emittedby GSM mobile telephones on the circadian patterns of steroid (cortisol and testosterone) and pituitary (TSH, GH,PRL and ACTH) hormones in healthy men.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Subjects
Twenty healthy male volunteers who were 20–32 years old participatedin this study. Their health status was ascertained by both clinical androutine biological examinations. The main exclusion criteria were nightor shift work, stressful work, frequent exposure to unusually high-inten-sity electromagnetic fields at any frequency (static, extremely low-fre-quency or RF), mobile phone use prior to entering the study and duringthe study other than that prescribed by the study, diseases of the ear, noseand throat, endocrine disorders, neuropsychiatric disease, unusual sleeppatterns, and recent transcontinental flight. The protocol was approved bythe Ethics Committee of Nıˆmes University Hospital and was performedaccording to ethical guidelines dealing with research on biologicalrhythms in humans (
15
).
 Exposure Parameters
The phone tested was the Motorola 8200 cellular radiotelephone, whichoperates near 900 MHz and employs the GSM system (Global Systemfor Mobile communication), 217 Hz modulation frequency, 1/8 duty fac-tor, 2 W maximal peak power, corresponding to a time-averaged absorbedpower (specific absorption rate averaged over 10 g, SAR
10g
) in the tem-
 
338
DJERIDANE, TOUITOU AND de SEZE
FIG. 1.
Experimental design.poral brain of about 0.3 W/kg. For each subject, exposure was on thesame side of the head for all sessions.
Phone Exposure
Volunteers used GSM phones for 2 h/day, 5 days/week, for 4 weeks. Eachsubject was exposed in our laboratory in either the 14:00–16:00 h or 16:30–18:30 h period. All the subjects were tested within a 3-month period. Fivegroups of four subjects were exposed at the same time during each session.During the exposure sessions, the attention of the volunteers and a correctusual listening position were maintained by TV projection of movies. Movieswere selected to avoid boring presentations, excessive suspense, dramatickilling, exciting sexuality, or depressing morbidity. For tests, the audio signalfrom the television set was distributed to four fixed telephones of the con-ventional commuted network. This enabled each subject to call a receivingtelephone from his own GSM handset to hear the movie soundtrack. Toreproduce the same behavioral conditions on all the sampling days, a shamexposure was also performed on the days of the first and the last blooddrawing sessions at the same times as the actual exposures. For sham ex-posure, the radiofrequency output on these days was switched to a 50
non-emitting load instead of the antenna. In this case, movie sound was hearddirectly from the TV speakers.
Sampling Protocol
Volunteers went to the Clinical Research Center of the Hospital for thesampling sessions. They were there for 24 h and arrived at around 18:30h. After 15 min of rest, their blood samples were collected through anindwelling antecubital catheter hourly between 22:00 and 10:00 h andevery 3 h between 10:00 and 22:00 h, for a total of 17 samples over 24h. Volunteers had dinner at 20:00 h and went to bed at 22:45 h. Duringthe sampling sessions, volunteers were synchronized photically by a reg-ular light pattern (on at 07:00 h, off at 23:00 h). Night samplings wereperformed under moderate light (intensity less than 10 lux). Volunteersusually remained asleep during samplings, but arousal sometimes oc-curred depending on the depth of sleep and position of the catheterizedarm. Data acquisition occurred over four sessions. The first took placebefore the beginning of the listening sessions (pre-exposure period); thenext was performed at the middle of the 1-month listening period (secondweek of exposure period). The third took place at the end of the listeningperiod (fourth week of exposure period), and the last 15 days later eval-uated the retentivity of any potential effect or a rebound effect (postex-posure period).Figure 1 shows the experimental design.
 Biochemical Assays
Serum levels of cortisol, testosterone, TSH, GH, PRL and ACTH wereassayed using commercial immunofluorometry (Delphia
, Wallac, Fin-land). The intra-assay coefficients of variation were as follows: for cor-tisol, 2.2% at 400 ng/ml; for testosterone, 4.5% at 4 ng/ml; for TSH,4.5% at 1.05
IU/ml; for GH, 6% at 0.40 mIU/liter; for PRL, 7.4% at11.7 ng/ml; for ACTH, 6.2% at 20 pmol/liter.
Variables
The following variables were analyzed for each individual volunteerand for each of the four sampling sessions: the maximum of the 24-hserum concentrations, the time of this peak (closest integer clock time),and the area under the curve. The area under the curve was calculatedwith Prism v3.00 (GraphPad
).
Statistical Analysis
To obtain high sensitivity in view of possible wide interindividual var-iations, subjects were their own controls, using the pre-exposure sessionfor reference. The means
SD for each variable (peak serum concen-tration, time of this peak, and area under the curve) were calculated foreach session, and the 2-week, 4-week and postexposure sessions werecompared with the pre-exposure session. The non-parametric Friedman’stest was performed to evaluate whether and to what extent exposure af-fects hormone levels. The analysis factor was the period pre-exposure,2-week or 4-week exposure, or postexposure; when appropriate, the posthoc Dunn’s Multiple Comparison Test was performed for more precisecomparison between specific periods. The Friedman’s test was performedwith Prism v3.00 (GraphPad
). Reported differences are the relative dif-ferences expressed as percentages of the mean values for the 19 volun-teers at the time when the change was considered to the mean value of the 19 volunteers at the indicated period. When not otherwise mentioned,the reference period is the pre-exposure period.
 
339
900 MHz ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD AND CIRCADIAN HORMONE SECRETION
FIG. 2.
Circadian patterns of ACTH, cortisol and testosterone for each session. Each point is the mean hormoneconcentration
standard error of the mean of 19 subjects shown before, during and after a 4-week exposure period.
RESULTS
One volunteer had to be excluded from the analysis be-cause his hormone profile indicated that he did not adhere tothe normal daytime schedule. Thus the total number of vol-unteers for the analysis was 19. All hormone profiles re-mained within normal physiological ranges; their circadianprofiles are presented in Figs. 2 and 3. For cortisol and GH,we observed a significant decrease in the maximum of thepeak. For GH, this was correlated with a decrease in the areaunder the curve. No time of the peak in the serum hormoneconcentrations was significantly different over the 4-week sampling period (Table 1 and Figs. 2, 3).
 ACTH 
ACTH concentrations showed a morning peak, with themaximum serum ACTH level occurring between 07:00 h

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