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Yesilyurt H - Four Identities Related to Third Order Mock Theta Functions in Ramanujan_s Lost Notebook - Adv. in Math. 190 (2005), 278-299

Yesilyurt H - Four Identities Related to Third Order Mock Theta Functions in Ramanujan_s Lost Notebook - Adv. in Math. 190 (2005), 278-299

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10/25/2012

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http://www.elsevier.com/locate/aim
Advances in Mathematics 190 (2005) 278–299
Four identities related to third order mock thetafunctions in Ramanujan’s lost notebook
Hamza Yesilyurt
Department of Mathematics, University of Illinois, 1409 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
Received 10 February 2003; accepted 17 December 2003Communicated by Michael Hopkins
Abstract
We prove, for the first time, a series of four related identities from Ramanujan’s lostnotebook. The identities are connected with third order mock theta functions.
r
2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
1. Introduction
In his last letter to Hardy, Ramanujan introduced mock theta functions[9, pp. 127–131]. Included in this letter were the four third order mock thetafunctions:
e
 f  f 
ð
q
Þ ¼
X
N
n
¼
0
q
n
2
ð
1
þ
q
Þ
2
ð
1
þ
q
2
Þ
2
?
ð
1
þ
q
n
Þ
2
;
ð
1
:
1
Þ
e
ff
ð
q
Þ ¼
X
N
n
¼
0
q
n
2
ð
1
þ
q
2
Þð
1
þ
q
4
Þ
?
ð
1
þ
q
2
n
Þ
;
ð
1
:
2
Þ
e
cc
ð
q
Þ ¼
X
N
n
¼
1
q
n
2
ð
1
À
q
Þð
1
À
q
3
Þ
?
ð
1
À
q
2
n
À
1
Þ
;
ð
1
:
3
Þ
ARTICLE IN PRESS
E-mail address:
yesilyur@math.uiuc.edu.0001-8708/$-see front matter
r
2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.doi:10.1016/j.aim.2003.12.007
 
e
ww
ð
q
Þ ¼
X
N
n
¼
0
q
n
2
ð
1
À
q
þ
q
2
Þð
1
À
q
2
þ
q
4
Þ
?
ð
1
À
q
n
þ
q
2
n
Þ
:
ð
1
:
4
Þ
They satisfy the equations2
e
ff
ðÀ
q
Þ À
e
 f  f 
ð
q
Þ ¼
e
 f  f 
ð
q
Þ þ
4
e
cc
ðÀ
q
Þ ¼ ðÀ
q
;
q
Þ
À
1
N
X
N
n
¼À
N
ðÀ
1
Þ
n
q
n
2
;
ð
1
:
5
Þ
4
e
ww
ð
q
Þ À
e
 f  f 
ð
q
Þ ¼
3
ð
q
;
q
Þ
À
1
N
X
N
n
¼À
N
ðÀ
1
Þ
n
q
3
n
2
( )
2
;
ð
1
:
6
Þ
where we used the standard notation
ð
a
;
q
Þ
n
¼ ð
a
Þ
n
:
¼ ð
1
À
a
Þð
1
À
aq
Þ
y
ð
1
À
aq
n
À
1
Þ
;
ð
a
;
q
Þ
N
¼
Y
N
n
¼
0
ð
1
À
aq
n
Þ
;
j
q
j
o
1
:
Watson[10]proved (1.5) and (1.6). Andrews[1]also gave certain generalizations of  (1.5) and (1.6). Third order mock theta functions are related to the rank of apartition defined by Dyson[5]as the largest part minus the number of parts. Let usdefine
ð
m
;
n
Þ
as the number of partitions of 
n
with rank
m
:
The generating functionfor
ð
m
;
n
Þ
is given by
X
N
m
¼À
N
X
N
n
¼
0
ð
m
;
n
Þ
q
n
t
m
¼
X
N
n
¼
0
q
n
2
ð
tq
Þ
n
ð
t
À
1
q
Þ
n
;
j
q
j
o
1
;
j
q
j
o
j
t
j
o
j
1
=
q
j
:
ð
1
:
7
Þ
The third order mock theta functions defined by (1.1) through (1.4) can be expressedin terms of this generating function. Third order mock theta functions and theirapplications to the rank are detailed by Fine[7].A comprehensive literature survey on mock theta functions is given by Andrews[2].We prove, for the first time, a series of four related identities from Ramanujan’slost notebook. These identities are defined and their connections to (1.5) and (1.6)are given in Section 3. Proofs of these identities are provided in Sections 4–7. Inaddition, we will show in Section 8 that one of the identities can be used to prove thefollowing identity:
ð
q
Þ
2
N
ð
t
Þ
N
ð
t
À
1
q
Þ
N
¼
X
N
n
¼À
N
ðÀ
1
Þ
n
q
n
ð
n
þ
1
Þ
=
2
1
À
tq
n
:
ð
1
:
8
Þ
Identity (1.8) was proved by Evans[6, Eq. (3.1)]following a different approach.Equality (1.8) is also given in a different form by Ramanujan on p. 59 of the lostnotebook[9]. Partition theory implications of the product
ð
q
Þ
N
ð
tq
Þ
N
ð
t
À
1
q
Þ
N
are discussed in[8].
ARTICLE IN PRESS
H. Yesilyurt / Advances in Mathematics 190 (2005) 278–299
279
 
2. Definitions and preliminary results
We first recall Ramanujan’s definitions for a general theta function and some of itsimportant special cases. Set
 f 
ð
a
;
b
Þ
:
¼
X
p
n
¼À
N
a
n
ð
n
þ
1
Þ
=
2
b
n
ð
n
À
1
Þ
=
2
;
j
ab
j
o
1
:
ð
2
:
1
Þ
Basic properties satisfied by
ð
a
;
b
Þ
 f 
ð
a
;
b
Þ ¼
ð
b
;
a
Þ
;
ð
2
:
2
Þ
 f 
ð
1
;
a
Þ ¼
2
 f 
ð
a
;
a
3
Þ
;
ð
2
:
3
Þ
 f 
ðÀ
1
;
a
Þ ¼
0
ð
2
:
4
Þ
and if 
n
is an integer,
 f 
ð
a
;
b
Þ ¼
a
n
ð
n
þ
1
Þ
=
2
b
n
ð
n
À
1
Þ
=
2
 f 
ð
a
ð
ab
Þ
n
;
b
ð
ab
Þ
À
n
Þ
:
ð
2
:
5
Þ
If 
n
¼
1
;
(2.5) becomes
 f 
ð
a
;
b
Þ ¼
af 
ð
a
À
1
;
a
2
b
Þ
:
ð
2
:
6
Þ
Two other formulas satisfied by
ð
a
;
b
Þ
 f 
ð
a
;
b
Þ þ
ðÀ
a
;
À
b
Þ ¼
2
 f 
ð
a
3
b
;
ab
3
Þ
;
ð
2
:
7
Þ
 f 
ð
a
;
b
Þ À
ðÀ
a
;
À
b
Þ ¼
2
af 
ð
ba
À
1
;
ab
À
1
a
4
b
4
Þ
:
ð
2
:
8
Þ
The function
ð
a
;
b
Þ
satisfies the well-known Jacobi triple product identity[4, p. 35,Entry 19]
 f 
ð
a
;
b
Þ ¼ ðÀ
a
;
ab
Þ
N
ðÀ
b
;
ab
Þ
N
ð
ab
;
ab
Þ
N
:
ð
2
:
9
Þ
Some important special cases of (2.1) and (2.9) are
j
ð
q
Þ
:
¼
ð
q
;
q
Þ ¼
X
N
n
¼À
N
q
n
2
¼ ðÀ
q
;
q
2
Þ
2
N
ð
q
2
;
q
2
Þ
N
;
ð
2
:
10
Þ
c
ð
q
Þ
:
¼
ð
q
;
q
3
Þ ¼
X
N
n
¼
0
q
n
ð
n
þ
1
Þ
=
2
¼ ðÀ
q
;
q
Þ
2
N
ð
q
;
q
Þ
N
;
ð
2
:
11
Þ
ARTICLE IN PRESS
H. Yesilyurt / Advances in Mathematics 190 (2005) 278–299
280

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