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http://www.elsevier.com/locate/aim

Advances in Mathematics 190 (2005) 278–299

Four identities related to third order mock thetafunctions in Ramanujan’s lost notebook

Hamza Yesilyurt

Department of Mathematics, University of Illinois, 1409 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801, USA

Received 10 February 2003; accepted 17 December 2003Communicated by Michael Hopkins

Abstract

We prove, for the ﬁrst time, a series of four related identities from Ramanujan’s lostnotebook. The identities are connected with third order mock theta functions.

r

2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

In his last letter to Hardy, Ramanujan introduced mock theta functions[9, pp. 127–131]. Included in this letter were the four third order mock thetafunctions:

e

f f

ð

q

Þ ¼

X

N

n

¼

0

q

n

2

ð

1

þ

q

Þ

2

ð

1

þ

q

2

Þ

2

?

ð

1

þ

q

n

Þ

2

;

ð

1

:

1

Þ

e

ff

ð

q

Þ ¼

X

N

n

¼

0

q

n

2

ð

1

þ

q

2

Þð

1

þ

q

4

Þ

?

ð

1

þ

q

2

n

Þ

;

ð

1

:

2

Þ

e

cc

ð

q

Þ ¼

X

N

n

¼

1

q

n

2

ð

1

À

q

Þð

1

À

q

3

Þ

?

ð

1

À

q

2

n

À

1

Þ

;

ð

1

:

3

Þ

ARTICLE IN PRESS

E-mail address:

yesilyur@math.uiuc.edu.0001-8708/$-see front matter

r

2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.doi:10.1016/j.aim.2003.12.007

e

ww

ð

q

Þ ¼

X

N

n

¼

0

q

n

2

ð

1

À

q

þ

q

2

Þð

1

À

q

2

þ

q

4

Þ

?

ð

1

À

q

n

þ

q

2

n

Þ

:

ð

1

:

4

Þ

They satisfy the equations2

e

ff

ðÀ

q

Þ À

e

f f

ð

q

Þ ¼

e

f f

ð

q

Þ þ

4

e

cc

ðÀ

q

Þ ¼ ðÀ

q

;

q

Þ

À

1

N

X

N

n

¼À

N

ðÀ

1

Þ

n

q

n

2

;

ð

1

:

5

Þ

4

e

ww

ð

q

Þ À

e

f f

ð

q

Þ ¼

3

ð

q

;

q

Þ

À

1

N

X

N

n

¼À

N

ðÀ

1

Þ

n

q

3

n

2

( )

2

;

ð

1

:

6

Þ

where we used the standard notation

ð

a

;

q

Þ

n

¼ ð

a

Þ

n

:

¼ ð

1

À

a

Þð

1

À

aq

Þ

y

ð

1

À

aq

n

À

1

Þ

;

ð

a

;

q

Þ

N

¼

Y

N

n

¼

0

ð

1

À

aq

n

Þ

;

j

q

j

o

1

:

Watson[10]proved (1.5) and (1.6). Andrews[1]also gave certain generalizations of
(1.5) and (1.6). Third order mock theta functions are related to the rank of apartition deﬁned by Dyson[5]as the largest part minus the number of parts. Let usdeﬁne

N

ð

m

;

n

Þ

as the number of partitions of

n

with rank

m

:

The generating functionfor

N

ð

m

;

n

Þ

is given by

X

N

m

¼À

N

X

N

n

¼

0

N

ð

m

;

n

Þ

q

n

t

m

¼

X

N

n

¼

0

q

n

2

ð

tq

Þ

n

ð

t

À

1

q

Þ

n

;

j

q

j

o

1

;

j

q

j

o

j

t

j

o

j

1

=

q

j

:

ð

1

:

7

Þ

The third order mock theta functions deﬁned by (1.1) through (1.4) can be expressedin terms of this generating function. Third order mock theta functions and theirapplications to the rank are detailed by Fine[7].A comprehensive literature survey
on mock theta functions is given by Andrews[2].We prove, for the ﬁrst time, a series of four related identities from Ramanujan’slost notebook. These identities are deﬁned and their connections to (1.5) and (1.6)are given in Section 3. Proofs of these identities are provided in Sections 4–7. Inaddition, we will show in Section 8 that one of the identities can be used to prove thefollowing identity:

ð

q

Þ

2

N

ð

t

Þ

N

ð

t

À

1

q

Þ

N

¼

X

N

n

¼À

N

ðÀ

1

Þ

n

q

n

ð

n

þ

1

Þ

=

2

1

À

tq

n

:

ð

1

:

8

Þ

Identity (1.8) was proved by Evans[6, Eq. (3.1)]following a different approach.Equality (1.8) is also given in a different form by Ramanujan on p. 59 of the lostnotebook[9]. Partition theory implications of the product

ð

q

Þ

N

ð

tq

Þ

N

ð

t

À

1

q

Þ

N

ARTICLE IN PRESS

H. Yesilyurt / Advances in Mathematics 190 (2005) 278–299

279

2. Deﬁnitions and preliminary results

We ﬁrst recall Ramanujan’s deﬁnitions for a general theta function and some of itsimportant special cases. Set

f

ð

a

;

b

Þ

:

¼

X

p

n

¼À

N

a

n

ð

n

þ

1

Þ

=

2

b

n

ð

n

À

1

Þ

=

2

;

j

ab

j

o

1

:

ð

2

:

1

Þ

Basic properties satisﬁed by

f

ð

a

;

b

Þ

include[4, p. 34, Entry 18]

f

ð

a

;

b

Þ ¼

f

ð

b

;

a

Þ

;

ð

2

:

2

Þ

f

ð

1

;

a

Þ ¼

2

f

ð

a

;

a

3

Þ

;

ð

2

:

3

Þ

f

ðÀ

1

;

a

Þ ¼

0

ð

2

:

4

Þ

and if

n

is an integer,

f

ð

a

;

b

Þ ¼

a

n

ð

n

þ

1

Þ

=

2

b

n

ð

n

À

1

Þ

=

2

f

ð

a

ð

ab

Þ

n

;

b

ð

ab

Þ

À

n

Þ

:

ð

2

:

5

Þ

If

n

¼

1

;

(2.5) becomes

f

ð

a

;

b

Þ ¼

af

ð

a

À

1

;

a

2

b

Þ

:

ð

2

:

6

Þ

Two other formulas satisﬁed by

f

ð

a

;

b

Þ

f

ð

a

;

b

Þ þ

f

ðÀ

a

;

À

b

Þ ¼

2

f

ð

a

3

b

;

ab

3

Þ

;

ð

2

:

7

Þ

f

ð

a

;

b

Þ À

f

ðÀ

a

;

À

b

Þ ¼

2

af

ð

ba

À

1

;

ab

À

1

a

4

b

4

Þ

:

ð

2

:

8

Þ

The function

f

ð

a

;

b

Þ

f

ð

a

;

b

Þ ¼ ðÀ

a

;

ab

Þ

N

ðÀ

b

;

ab

Þ

N

ð

ab

;

ab

Þ

N

:

ð

2

:

9

Þ

Some important special cases of (2.1) and (2.9) are

j

ð

q

Þ

:

¼

f

ð

q

;

q

Þ ¼

X

N

n

¼À

N

q

n

2

¼ ðÀ

q

;

q

2

Þ

2

N

ð

q

2

;

q

2

Þ

N

;

ð

2

:

10

Þ

c

ð

q

Þ

:

¼

f

ð

q

;

q

3

Þ ¼

X

N

n

¼

0

q

n

ð

n

þ

1

Þ

=

2

¼ ðÀ

q

;

q

Þ

2

N

ð

q

;

q

Þ

N

;

ð

2

:

11

Þ

ARTICLE IN PRESS

H. Yesilyurt / Advances in Mathematics 190 (2005) 278–299

280