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Published by: ravikumar_ch on Sep 03, 2010
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 Introducing the Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) Bus
PCI Definition
PCI stands for Peripheral Component Interconnect. The PCILocal Bus Standard was introduced by Intel Corporation in 1993. PCI is an I/O bus. I/O busses are used toconnect various types of Input/Output devices in a computer system. I/O busses canhave many different types of devices connected to them and can provide differentbandwidth to the different devices. Since 1993 use of the PCI Local Bus Standard hasbecome very widespread. Nearly all modern PCs and Macintosh computers utilize thePCI local bus standard. PCI is an aging standard and it's replacement, PCI Express, isscheduled for release in 2003. Despite this fact, the huge base of devices currentlydesigned to use the PCI Local Bus Standard ensures that PCI will be implemented inmost personal computer systems for years to come
PCI Purpose
The purpose of thePCIlocal bus standard is to provide a means of transferring databetween devices in a computer.
PCI Bus Demystified: 
Typically, the processor is connected at one end of these wires. Memory may also beattached via the bus.
The wires are split into several functional groups such as:
: Specifies the peripheral and register within the peripheral that isbeing accessed.
: The information being transferred to or from the peripheral
: Signals that effect the data transfer operation. It is the control signalsand how they are manipulated that embody the bus
.Beyond basic data transfer, busses typically incorporate advanced features such as:
Power distributionAdditional control lines manage these features.The classic concept of a bus is a set of boards plugged into a passive backplane asshown in Figure 1-1. But there are also many bus implementations based on cablesinterconnecting stand-alone boxes.
What makes the PCI bus one of the fastest I/O bus used today?
Three features make this possible:
Burst Mode: allows multiple sets of data to be sent (Kozierok, 2001a)
Full Bus Mastering: the ability of devices on the PCI bus to perform transfersdirectly (Kozierok, 2001c)
High Bandwidth Options: allows for increased speed of the PCI (Kozierok,2001a)
Plug and Play
Requirements for full implementation:
Plug and Play BIOS
Extended System Configuration Data (ESCD)
Plug and Play operating system
Tasks it automates:
Interrupt Requests (IRQ)
Direct Memory Access (DMA)
Memory Addresses
Input/Output (I/O) Configuration
How PCI Works: Installing A New Device
Once a new device has been inserted into a PCI slot on the motherboard
1. Operating System Basic Input/Output System (BIOS) initiates Plug and Play (PnP) BIOS.2. PnP BIOS scans the PCI bus for any new hardware connected to the bus. If new hardware isfound, it will ask for identification.3.The device will respond with its identification and send its device ID to the BIOS through thebus.4.PnP checks the Extended System Configuration Data (ESCD) to make sure the configurationdata already exists for the card. (If the card is new, then there will be no data for it.)5. PnP will assign an Interrupt Request Line, Direct Memory Access, memory address andInput/Output settings to the card, then stores the information in the ESCD.

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