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Nonholonomic Ricci Flows and Running Cosmological Constant: I. 4D Taub-NUT Metrics

Nonholonomic Ricci Flows and Running Cosmological Constant: I. 4D Taub-NUT Metrics

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Published by Sergiu Vacaru
Authors: Sergiu I. Vacaru and Mihai Visinescu ;

Published: International Journal of Modern Physics A 22 (2007) 1135-1159
Authors: Sergiu I. Vacaru and Mihai Visinescu ;

Published: International Journal of Modern Physics A 22 (2007) 1135-1159

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Published by: Sergiu Vacaru on Jun 30, 2008
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International Journal of Modern Physics AVol. 22, No. 6 (2007) 1135–1159c
World Scientific Publishing Company
NONHOLONOMIC RICCI FLOWS ANDRUNNING COSMOLOGICAL CONSTANT:I. 4D TAUB-NUT METRICS
SERGIU I. VACARU
The Fields Institute for Research in Mathematical Science,222 College Street, Second Floor, Toronto, Ontario M5T 3J1, Canada svacaru@fields.utoronto.ca sergiu vacaru@yahoo.com 
MIHAI VISINESCU
Department of Theoretical Physics,National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering,P.O. Box M.G.-6, Magurele, Bucharest, Romania mvisin@theory.nipne.ro
Received 20 September 2006In this work we construct and analyze exact solutions describing Ricci flows and nonholo-nomic deformations of four-dimensional (4D) Taub-NUT space–times. It is outlined anew geometric technique of constructing Ricci flow solutions. Some conceptual issues onspace–times provided with generic off-diagonal metrics and associated nonlinear connec-tion structures are analyzed. The limit from gravity/Ricci flow models with nontrivialtorsion to configurations with the Levi-Civita connection is allowed in some specificphysical circumstances by constraining the class of integral varieties for the Einsteinand Ricci flow equations.
Keywords
: Ricci flows; exact solutions; Taub-NUT spaces.PACS numbers: 04.20.Jb, 04.30.Nk, 04.50.+h, 04.90.+e, 02.30.Jk
1. Introduction
Hawking has suggested
1
that the Euclidean Taub-NUT metric might give rise tothe gravitational analogue of the Yang–Mills instanton. Also, in the long-distantlimit, neglecting radiation, the relative motion of two monopoles is described bythe geodesics of this space.
2,3
The Kaluza–Klein monopole was obtained by em-bedding the Taub-NUT gravitational instanton into five-dimensional (5D) Kaluza–Klein theory
4,5
(there are various classes of solitonic/monopole solutions, in brief,termed KK monopoles; see further developments and reviews of results in pseudo-classical models
6,7
).
1135
 
1136
S. I. Vacaru & M. Visinescu 
On the other hand, the recent experimental data seem to indicate that theuniverse does indeed possess a small positive cosmological constant. This induceda program of researches on generalized solutions in asymptotically (anti)-de Sitter(AdS) space–times (KK–AdS–Taub-NUT solutions
8–10
and new cosmologicalTaub-NUT-like solutions
11,12
).The problem of extending the gravitational monopole solutions to extra dimen-sions and/or on spaces with nontrivial cosmological constants is related to amore general problem of constructing and interpretation of solutions definingphysical objects self-consistently embedded in arbitrary nontrivial gravitationalbackgrounds. The usual techniques for generating new classes of monopole solu-tions with nonzero cosmological constants is to add the timelike coordinate, togeneralize the metric to time dependencies (for instance, to a cosmological model)and then to perform the Kaluza–Klein compactification on the fifth dimension(in brief, 5D).There is a more general approach of constructing exact solutions in gravityfollowing the so-called “anholonomic frame method” elaborated and developed ina series of works (see Refs. 13–15). The idea is to use certain classes of nonholo-nomic (equivalently, anholonomic)deformations of the frame, metric and connectionstructures and superpositions of generalized conformal maps in order to generate aclass of off-diagonal metric ansatz solving exactly the vacuum or nonvacuum Ein-stein equations.
a
The method was considered, for instance, for constructing locallyanisotropic Taub-NUT solutions
16
and investigating self-consistent propagations of three-dimensional Dirac and/or solitonic waves in such space–times.
17
A general nonholonomic transform of a “primary” metric (it can be an exactsolution or, for instance, a conformal transform of a known exact solution) into ageneric off-diagonal exact solution does not preserve the properties of former metric.Nevertheless, if there are certain satisfied smooth limits to already known solutions,boundary (asymptotic) and deforming symmetry conditions, one may consider that,for instance, a primary Taub-NUT configuration became locally anisotropic withpolarized constants and/or imbedded self-consistently in a nontrivial, for instance,solitonic background. The new classes of solutions can be used for testing varioustype of physical theories (string/brane gravity, noncommutative and gauge gravity,Finsler like generalizations
...
) when the physical interactions are described bygeneric off-diagonal metrics and nonholonomic constraints; in general, with non-trivial topological configurations and new type symmetries (non-Killing ones, forinstance, with generalized Lie algebra symmetries); the extra dimensions are notsubjected to the Kaluza–Klein restrictions.
a
Such ansatz cannot be diagonalized by coordinate transforms but can be effectively diagonalizedwith respect to certain systems of nonholonomic local frames with associated nonlinear connectionstructures, see details in Ref. 15. This allows us to apply a well-developed geometric technique inorder to define generalized symmetries and to integrate exactly the corresponding systems of fieldequations. For instance, for 5D space–times, such solutions depend on sets of integrating functionson four and three variables.
 
Nonholonomic Ricci Flows and Running Cosmological Constant 
1137
The anholonomic frame method seems to be effective in constructing exact solu-tions of the Ricci flow equations.
18
Such equations were introduced by Hamilton
19
in order to describe the geometric evolution of a Riemannian manifold (
V,g
)
,
whereby
g
we denote the metric, in the direction of its Ricci tensor Ric(
g
)
,
see reviewsof results and applications in Refs. 20–22. There is a vast potential use of thisgeometric approach in theoretical physics and cosmology.
23,24,26–30
It is known that there is a unique solution for the Ricci flow with boundedcurvature on a complete noncompact manifold.
31
A very important task is to con-struct exact solutions for the Ricci flow equations and to investigate their physicalimplications. The purpose of this work is two-fold. The first one is to elaborate ageneral method of constructing exact Ricci flow solutions for certain classes of off-diagonally deformed metric ansatz, both for connections with trivial and nontrivialtorsion. The other is to construct explicit examples of such 4D exact solutions, forTaub-NUT-like metrics, to analyze their physical properties and to show that theymay possess nontrivial limits to the Einstein spaces.The structure of the paper is as follows: In Sec. 2, we define a new geometricapproach in constructing exact solutions for Ricci flows of generic off-diagonalmetrics. The approach is based on the so-called anholonomic frame method withassociated nonlinear connection structure. We construct a general class of integralvarieties of Ricci flow equations and define the constrains for the Levi-Civita con-figurations. In Sec. 3, we apply the formalism to 4D Taub-NUT configurations andtheir off-diagonal Ricci flows. The last section is devoted to conclusions and discus-sion. In Appendix, we outline the necessary material from the geometry of nonlinearconnections and related nonholonomic deformations.
2. Nonholonomic Ricci Flows
In this section, we introduce an off-diagonal ansatz for metrics depending on threecoordinates and consider the anholonomic frame method of constructing exact solu-tions for the system of equations defining Ricci flows of metrics subjected to non-holonomic constraints.
2.1.
Geometric preliminaries
The normalized Ricci flows,
19–24
with respect to a coordinate base
∂ 
α
=
∂/∂u
α
,
are defined by the equations
∂ ∂τ g
αβ
=
2
R
αβ
+2
r
5
g
αβ
,
(1)where
R
αβ
is the Ricci tensor of a metric
g
αβ
and corresponding Levi-Civitaconnection
b
and the normalizing factor
r
=
 
RdV/dV 
is introduced in order to
b
By definition, this connection is torsionless and metric compatible.

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