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Final Ali Note n Images Ali

Final Ali Note n Images Ali

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Published by Mahafuj Ali

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Published by: Mahafuj Ali on Sep 18, 2010
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01/05/2011

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Rainwater Harvest & Groundwater recharge
1.
 
Groundwater Recharge:
Groundwater recharge is an important part ofthe hydrologic cycle, in which water from thesurface works its way into the subsurface,replenishing groundwater supplies. It is important tounderstand how much water is entering a supply ofgroundwater, as this influences how much water cansafely be taken from groundwater supplies for ouruse.
1.1
 
Importance of groundwater recharge
In order to improve the ground water situation it isnecessary to artificially recharge the depletedground water aquifers.(As part of the water cycle, some precipitationinfiltrates the ground and percolates down until itreaches a depth where all the fractures, crevicesand pore spaces are saturated with water. Thissaturated zone is called an aquifer and the wateris called groundwater. The upper surface of a zoneof saturation is the water table. The water table isthe first occurrence of groundwater. Above thewater table is the zone of aeration.)Many of the techniques used for groundwaterrecharge can be adopted by the individuals andcommunities with locally available materials andmanpower.
2. Methods of Groundwater Rechargea. Direct surface techniquesSpreading method
 
Flooding or over irrigation.
 
Spreading within channel
7.01
 
 
Rainwater Harvest & Groundwater recharge
 
Basins or percolation tanks.
 
check dams and Nala bunds
 
Ditch and furrow system
b. Direct sub surface techniques
 
Injection wells or recharge wells
 
Recharge pits and shafts-vertical & Lateral.
 
Dug well recharge
 
Bore hole flooding
 
Hand Pumps.
 
Natural openings, cavity fillings.
c. Combination surface
 –
sub-surface techniques
 
Basin or percolation tanks with pit shaft orwells.
d. Indirect Techniques
 
Induced recharge from surface watersource.
 
Aquifer modification.
a. The direct surface techniques
or spreadingmethods are suitable where large area of basin isavailable and aquifers are unconfined withoutimpervious layer above it.The various spreadingmethods are-
2.1 Flooding or over irrigation
This method is suitable for relatively flattopography. The water is spread as a thin sheet. Itrequires a system of distribution channel for thesupply of water for flooding. Higher rate ofvertical infiltration is obtained on areas withundisturbed vegetation and sandy soil covering.
Channel spreading with small
‘L’ shaped bund.
 
7.02
 
 
Rainwater Harvest & Groundwater recharge
2.2 Percolation Tanks, Spreading Basin
These are the most prevalent structures in India as ameasure to recharge the ground water reservoirboth in alluvial as well as hard rock formations. Theefficacy and feasibility of these structures is more inhard rock formation where the rocks are highlyfractured & weathered. In the States ofMaharashtra, A.P, M.P, Karnataka and Gujarat, thepercolation tanks have been constructed in plenty inbasalticl ava flows and crystalline rocks.
2.3 Stream augmentation with
 
Check DamsCement Plug nala bunds
Check dams are constructed across small streamshaving gentle slope and are feasible both in hardrock as well as alluvial formation. The site selectedfor check dam should have sufficient thickness ofpermeable bed or weathered formation tofacilitate recharge of stored water within shortspan of time. The water stored in these structures ismostly confined to stream course and the height isnormally less than 2 m. These are designed basedon stream width and excess water is allowed toflow over the wall.
2.4 Ditch and furrow system
In areas with irregular topography, shallow, flatbottomed and closely spaced ditches or furrowsprovide maximum water contact area for rechargewater from source stream or canal. This techniquerequires less soil preparation than the rechargebasins and is less sensitive to silting.
Spreading through network of ditch & furrow system.Check damsPercolation Tank
7.03

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