Endotracheal tube might enter the RMSB if tube is passed too far.1.
Left mainstem bronchus (LMSB): branches off the trachea at a 45-degree angle.2.
The bronchi subdivide into bronchioles, terminal bronchioles, respiratory bronchioles, andalveoli.A.
Air cells in which gas exchange takes place: oxygen, carbon dioxide.2.
House a substance known as surfactant, which keeps the alveoli expanded. Withoutsurfactant the alveoli would collapse.B.
The pleural fluid is a thin of fluid, encasing each lung, which allows for a smooth, glidingmotion between the lung and the chest wall.2.
Even though this fluid is film-like, it would be difficult to pull it away from the chest wall(analagous to two glass slides with fluid between them; the slides move back and fortheasily but are difficult to pull apart)PRINCIPLES OF VENTILATIONRespirationDefinition: A process in which oxygen is transported from the atmosphere to the cells and carbondioxide is carried from the cells to the atmosphere.A.
Respiration is divided into four phases.1.
Diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide between alveoli and blood.3.
Transportation of oxygen and carbon dioxide in blood to and from cells.4.
Regulation of ventilation.B.
Inspiration (active process) ± diaphragm descends and external intercostals musclescontract; alveolar pressure decreases, allowing air to flow into the lungs.2.
Expiration (normally a passive process) ± alveolar pressure increases, allowing air to flowfrom the lungs.Respiratory PressuresA.
At inspiration the intra-alveolar pressure is more negative than the atmospheric pressure.B.
At expiration the intra-alveolar pressure is more positive, thereby pressing the air out of thelungs.C.
A negative pressure exists in the intrapleural space and aids in keeping the visceral pleura of thelungs against the parietal pleura of the chest wall. Lung space enlarges as the chest wallexpands.D.
Recoil tendency of the lungs is due to the elastic fibers in the lungs and the surfactant.SurfactantA.
Surface-active material that lines the alveoli and changes the surface tension, depending on thearea over which it is spread.B.
Surfactant in the lungs allows the smaller alveoli to have lower surface tension than the larger alveoli.