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Respitatory System (1)

Respitatory System (1)

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Published by Mamot Mot

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Categories:Types, School Work
Published by: Mamot Mot on Sep 19, 2010
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01/31/2013

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RESPIRATORY SYSTEMThe respiratory system is that body process which accomplishes pulmonary ventilation. The act of  breathing involves an osmotic and chemical process by which the body takes in oxygen from theatmosphere and gives off end products, mainly carbon dioxide, formed by oxidation in the alveolar tissues.ANATOMY OF RESPIRATORY SYSTEMUpper AirwayA.
 
 Nasal passages:1.
 
Filter the air.2.
 
Warm the air.3.
 
Humidify the air.B.
 
 Nasopharynx1.
 
Tonsils.2.
 
Eustachian tube: opens during swallowing to equalize pressure in the middle ear.C.
 
Oropharynx.1.
 
Part of both the respiratory and digestive tract.2.
 
Swallowing reflex initiated here.3.
 
Epiglottis closes entry to trachea as foodstuff passes enroute to the stomach.Lower AirwayA.
 
Larynx.1.
 
Protects the tracheobronchial tree from aspiration of foreign materials.2.
 
Cough reflex initiated here, whether voluntary or involuntary.3.
 
Houses the vocal cords, which are considered to be the dividing point between the upper and lower airways.B.
 
Trachea.1.
 
Cylindrical structure.2.
 
Extends from the cricoid carthage into the thorax, branching into the right and left main-stem bronchi.C.
 
Right lung.1.
 
Contains three distinct lobes: upper, middle, and lower.2.
 
Lobes are divided by interlobar fissures.D.
 
Left lung.1.
 
Contains two lobes ± upper and lower.2.
 
Lingula is part of the upper lobe but is sometimes referred to as the middle lobe of the leftlung.3.
 
Lobes are divided by one interlobar fissure.E.
 
Bronchi.1.
 
Right mainstem bronchus (RMSB): shorter and wider than left bronchus; nearly vertical totrachea.a.
 
Most frequent route for aspirated materials.
 
a.
 
Endotracheal tube might enter the RMSB if tube is passed too far.1.
 
Left mainstem bronchus (LMSB): branches off the trachea at a 45-degree angle.2.
 
The bronchi subdivide into bronchioles, terminal bronchioles, respiratory bronchioles, andalveoli.A.
 
Alveoli.1.
 
Air cells in which gas exchange takes place: oxygen, carbon dioxide.2.
 
House a substance known as surfactant, which keeps the alveoli expanded. Withoutsurfactant the alveoli would collapse.B.
 
Pleura.1.
 
The pleural fluid is a thin of fluid, encasing each lung, which allows for a smooth, glidingmotion between the lung and the chest wall.2.
 
Even though this fluid is film-like, it would be difficult to pull it away from the chest wall(analagous to two glass slides with fluid between them; the slides move back and fortheasily but are difficult to pull apart)PRINCIPLES OF VENTILATIONRespirationDefinition: A process in which oxygen is transported from the atmosphere to the cells and carbondioxide is carried from the cells to the atmosphere.A.
 
Respiration is divided into four phases.1.
 
Pulmonary ventilation.2.
 
Diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide between alveoli and blood.3.
 
Transportation of oxygen and carbon dioxide in blood to and from cells.4.
 
Regulation of ventilation.B.
 
Respiratory cycle.1.
 
Inspiration (active process) ± diaphragm descends and external intercostals musclescontract; alveolar pressure decreases, allowing air to flow into the lungs.2.
 
Expiration (normally a passive process) ± alveolar pressure increases, allowing air to flowfrom the lungs.Respiratory PressuresA.
 
At inspiration the intra-alveolar pressure is more negative than the atmospheric pressure.B.
 
At expiration the intra-alveolar pressure is more positive, thereby pressing the air out of thelungs.C.
 
A negative pressure exists in the intrapleural space and aids in keeping the visceral pleura of thelungs against the parietal pleura of the chest wall. Lung space enlarges as the chest wallexpands.D.
 
Recoil tendency of the lungs is due to the elastic fibers in the lungs and the surfactant.SurfactantA.
 
Surface-active material that lines the alveoli and changes the surface tension, depending on thearea over which it is spread.B.
 
Surfactant in the lungs allows the smaller alveoli to have lower surface tension than the larger alveoli.
 
1.
 
Results in equal pressures within both and prevents collapse.2.
 
Production of surfactant depends on adequate blood supply.A.
 
Conditions that decrease surfactant.1.
 
Hypoxia.2.
 
Oxygen toxicity3.
 
Aspiration4.
 
Atelectasis.5.
 
Pulmonary edema.6.
 
Pulmonary embolus.7.
 
Mucolytic agents.8.
 
Hyaline membrane disease.ComplianceA.
 
Relationship between pressure and volume: elastic resistance. This is determined by dividingthe tidal volume by peak airway pressure (V, PAP). Total compliance equals chest wallcompliance.B.
 
Conditions that decrease chest wall compliance.1.
 
Obesity ± excess fatty tissue over chest wall and abdomen.2.
 
Kyphoscoliosis ± marked resistance to expansion of the chest wall.3.
 
Scleroderma ± expansion of the chest wall limited when the involved skin over the chestwall becomes stiff.4.
 
Chest wall injury ± as in crushing chest wall injuries.5.
 
Diaphragmatic paralysis ± as a result of surgical damage to the phrenic nerve, or disease process involving the diaphragm itself.C.
 
Conditions that decrease lung compliance.1.
 
Atelectasis ± collapse of the alveoli as a result of obstruction or hypoventilation.2.
 
Pneumonia ± inflammatory process involving the lung tissue.3.
 
Pulmonary edema ± accumulation of fluid in the alveoli.4.
 
Pleural effusion ± accumulation of pleural fluid in the pleural space compressing lung onthe affected side.5.
 
Pulmonary fibrosis ± scar tissue replacing necrosed lung tissue as a result of infection.6.
 
Pneumothorax ± air present in the pleural cavity; lung is collapsed as volume of air increases.Airway ResistanceA.
 
Opposition or counterforce. Resistance depends on the diameter and length of a given tube(respiratory tract).1.
 
Flow may be laminar (smooth) or turbulent.2.
 
Resistance equals pressure divided by flow (Poiseuille¶s law).B.
 
Conditions that increase airway resistance.1.
 
Secretions.2.
 
Bronchial constriction.Lung VolumesA.
 
Total lung capacity (TLC) ± total volume of air that is present in the lungs after maximuminspiration.

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