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Short Introduction of Textile Processes

Short Introduction of Textile Processes

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Published by syed asim najam

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Published by: syed asim najam on Sep 22, 2010
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ASSIGNMENTOFMERCHANDIZING
TOPIC 
: TEXTILE PROCESSES
NAME:
SYED ASIM NAJAM
CLASS:
BS-T VIII
SUBMITTED TO:
SIR KAISER
 
 YARN MANUFACTURING
 YARN COUNT:
The yarn count expresses the thickness of the yarn, and must be known before calculating thequantity of yarns for a known length of fabric. The yarn count number indicates the length of yarnin relation to the weight.
Commonly used Yarn Counts:
CountFiber 840Cotton, spun silk, rayon and acetate300Wool (cut system)560Worsted wool (spun system)1600Wool (run system)300Linen, hemp, jute and ramie
STAPLE LENGTH:
The length of the individual fibers of cotton. The length of the fibers affects the quality of the fabricthat is made from it. The longer being the higher quality yarn characterized in a softer morelustrous fiber and the shorter being lower quality or coarser.
WEAVING
Weaving
:
 
Weaving is the most common method used for producing fabrics. The process iscarried out of two sets of threads, which interlaces lengthwise yarns (warp yarns) with widthwiseones (weft or filling yarns).
In the plain weave the woof thread runs under and over the warp, and the warp threadsrun over and under the next woof threads.
Basket: In
order to produce this effect, this cloth cannot be woven tightly. It leaves the threadsquite loose
In this type of weave, extra warp threads are added to the regular plain weaveand they are pulled from one side to the other 
: This is a very interesting type of weave. By means of a small mechanical device on theloom, dots or figures are woven into the material.
Where durability and strength are desired, the twill weave is employed.
:Satin Weave has more threads on the surface than any other weave. It is used in fabrics of high luster.
:
The most important figure weave is damask
.
Linen:
A fabric woven with fiber of flax plant.
Khaki:
A sturdy cloth of a yellowish brown color especially used for military.
 
KNITTING
Knitting:
In
 
knitting fabric is formed through interlocking series of yarn loops. Rows of stitchesare formed so that each row hangs on the row behind it, usually using sophisticated, high-speedmachinery.
Double knit— a knit fabric similar to jersey that is made with two sets of needles producing a doublethickness joined by interlocking stitches
Jersey — a slightly elastic machine-knit fabric
Stockinet, stockinette — knit used especially for infants' wear and undergarments
Tricot— a knitted fabric or one resembling knitting
: Warp knitting is a family of knitting methods in which the yarn zigzags along the lengthof the fabric.
 
 
DYEING
Reactive dye:
Reactive dye
 
- a dye which attaches to the fiber by forming a
covalent 
bond; alsocalled fibre reactive dye. Reactive dyes are known for their bright colors and very good toexcellent lightfastness and washfastness, though poor resistance to chlorine bleach. There areseveral broad classes of reactive dyes. Most are intended for 
cellulose
fiber.
Pigment:
Pigment
 
- a colored substance that is insoluble in water, usually in the form of a finepowder 
 
Pigments are used to color many types of paint, including some textile paints, and almostall “inks” used for screen printing (“silkscreen” printing).
Disperse dye
: Disperse dye
 
- a dye that is almost totally insoluble in water. Disperse dyes existin the dye bath as a suspension or dispersion of microscopic particles, with only a tiny amount intrue solution at any time. They are the only dyes that are effective for “normal”
 polyester 
.
Garment dye:
Garment dye is dye used to color garments. It is used in the garment dyeingprocess, in which finished garments are colored with the use of dye. In the garment industry,garment dyeing is highly flexible and useful type of dyeing. This process can be used to createcustom garments for specific events, and also to create stock to respond to demands for particular colors and styles.
Vat Dyes
: The term vat
dyes
relates to dyes of any chemical class that are applied by the vatprocess. The dyes are insoluble in water and cannot be used directly for dyeing, but on reductionto a
leuco
form they become soluble in presence of an alkali and acquire affinity for cellulosicfibers.
Sulfur dyes:
Sulfur dyes are the most commonly useddyesmanufactured for cottonin terms of  volume. They are cheap, generally have good wash-fastness and are easy to apply. The generaldisadvantage of the Sulphur dyes that they produce dull shades and lack a red. The mainadvantage lays in their cheapness, ease of application and good wash-fastness.The use of Sulphur dyes is restricted to dull brown, Khaki and Navy shades
PRINTING
Rotary screen printing
Rotary screen printing involves a series of revolving screens, each with revolving screens, eachwith a stationary squeegee inside which forces the print paste onto the fabric. Twenty or morecolours can be printed at the same time. The process is much quicker and more efficient than flatscreen printing. Since the 1970s it has grown to dominate the textile printing market.
Reactive dye printing
Reactive dye printing is a method of printing adyeor waxby using mixes there of to create colors. With a binder and a heat-activated printing additive, images can be permanently bondedto the substrate (typically textiles, but can include cellulose, fibers, polyester, and even proteins).These reactions are generally heat-activated.
TABLE PRINTING:
Flock Printing
A third printing technique is known as flock printing. Here an adhesive is printed in a design onthe fabric. Next, the fabric is covered with cut fiber known as flock. The fiber is then embedded inthe adhesive by one of various techniques such as compressed air, the shaking process, or theelectrostatic process. Once the fiber is embedded in the resin, the resin is cured to firmly fix thefiber. This technique produces a three-dimensional pile surface effect in a specific design on thefabric.
Pigments
Pigments are widely used in textile printing, with about 45% of all textile prints produced usingpigments. Unlike dyes, they do not directly associate with the textile fibres but are fixed to the

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