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Development Administration

Development Administration

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Published by Abhijit Jadhav
Public administration IGNOU study material.
Public administration IGNOU study material.

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Published by: Abhijit Jadhav on Nov 06, 2010
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1.0 Objectives1.1 Introduction1.2 Meaning of Development Administration1.3Difference between Traditional Administration and DevelopmentAdministration1.4 Genesis of Development Administration1.5 Features of Development Administration
Let Us Sum Up1.7 Key Words
~nswers'to heck Your Progress Exercises
After reading this unit, you should be able to
discuss the meaning of development administrationdistinguish between traditional and development administrationtrace the evolution o<dcvelopment administration; andhighlight its features.
The essence of development administration is to bring about change throughintegrated, organised and properly directed governmental action. In the recent pastthe governments in most of the developing nations have shifted their focus ondevelopment by means of planned change and people's participation. With this shiftof administrative concern towards developmental objectives the researchers andpractitioners of Public Administration have been forced to conceptualise thedevelopmental situation and to bridge the gaps in administrative theory. The growingwelfare functions of the government have brought into limelight the limitations of thetraditional theory of administration.The essence of administration in the present conditions lies in its capacity to bringabout change in the structure and behaviour of different administrative institutions, todevelop an acceptance for the change and to create a system which can sustain changeand improve the capacity of institutions to change. All this calls for renewed effortson the part of institutions engaged in the tasks of development. Thus developmentadministration as an area of study and as means to realise developmental goalsassumes importance. This unit will highlight the meaning, features and genesis ofdevelopment administration.
There is no uniform definition of development administration which is agreeable toall. But we can atleast arrive at certain basic features and characteristics of
order to understand the concept of development administration, we should try tounderstand the meaning of the concept viz., administration of development anddevelopment of administration.
Administration of Development
Development is integral to the aims and activities of the government especially in thedeveloping countries. Because of paucity of resources, human and material in theircounties, the need for making optimum utilisation of available means andaugmenting new means assumes a great importance. Development administrationthus becomes a means through which the governmen€ brings quantitative andqualitative changes in an economy. Government is engaged in not only fixingpriorities but also making efforts to realise them. Though Weidner is said to be the
first to conceptually explain the definition of development administration, many otherscholars, like Riggs, Ferrel Heady, Montgomary, Gant, Pai Panandikar haveattempted to define the term in their own ways. However, before we analyse thedifferent definitions and meanings of the term, it should be mentioned that all of themagree that development administration is an effort towards planned transformation ofthe economy involving not only the sphere of administration but also formulation ofpolicies and indeed the society as a whole. It is an effort at the synchronisation ofchanges in all spheres of development-economic, political, social and cultural. Thusdevelopment is not only viewed in terms of growth process, but it includes a processof social change.The State plays a leading role in bringing about development through itsadministrative system. In order to discharge this role it requires a distinct type of.support by administration which involves, as'has been observed by Swerdlow, specialunderstanding of problems in the developing countries. These must
perceptible atdifferent operative levels i.e., officials must make enough different decisions, adoptenough differknt policies and engage in enough different activities o warrant thedifferent designations of development administration. Thus devel-opmentadministration is simply termed
an action or functioning part of the governmentadministration. It is action-oriented and places the administration at the centre inorder to facilitate the attainment of development objectives.For Harry
Friedman development administration means:i) the implementation of programmes designed to bring about modernity (i.e.socioeconomic progress and nation-building), andii) the changes within the administrative system which increase its capacity toimplement the programmes. According to Hahn Beenlee, developmentadministration is involved in managing a government or an agency so that itacquires an increasing capability to adapt to and act upon new and continuingsocial changes with a view to achieve sustained growth. Gant observed thatdevelopment administration is "that aspect of Public Administration in whichfocus of attention is on org~isingn~dministerin~ublic agencies in such away.
to stimulate and facilitate &fined programmes of social and economicprogress. It has the purpose of making change attractive and possible." Thusdevelopment administration involves two elements:1) the bureaucratic process that initiates and facilitates socio-economicprogress by making the optimum use of talents and expertise available; and
mobilisation of administrative skills so as to speed up the developmentprocess.Development administiation concentrates on the needs and desires of the people, It isconcerned with formulation of plans, programmes, policies and projects and theirimplementation. It plays
central role in carrying out planned change i.e. it isconcerned with plinning, co-ordination, control, monitoring and evaluation of plansand programmes. It is not only concerned with the application of policies
determined by the political representatives in existing situation but also withintroducing efforts to modify existing situations so as to serve the cause of the masses.The administration of development implies:i) the execution of programmes designed to bring about progressive improvement
ii) the changes within an administrative system which increases its capacity to
Development AdmhWstion
implement such programmes. In brief, administration of development involves
the following objectives:i)ii)iii)iv)v)vi)
vii)viii)ix)application of innovative strategies for developmentemphasis on development at the grassroots level. Development has to be aneed-oriented and self-reliantprocessstress on social development and human capital as a major resourcedevelopment has to
viewed not merely as a technological problem butalso as an ideological normprofound and rapid change in order to establish a distinct and just socialorderrecognising and highlighting the unity, rather than dichotomy betweenpolitics and administrationeffective and efficient use of scarce resourcescreation of a politics-administrative environment which is oriented towardssecuring basic needs of the populationfreedom of administrative machinery to express its values and beliefswithout fear or favour on programmes and projects.
Development of Administration
Admiitntive Development
Development Administration has to be efficient and effective. For that puQose it hasto aim at enlargement of administrative capabilities and structural and behaviouralchange. It is this aspect of administration that is called administrative develspment ordevelopment of administration. In simple terms it means development ofadministrative system,'of administrative health by introducing-administrativerationalisation and institution building. The purpose implicit in this concept is notmerely changing the administrative procedures and channels but also bringing outfundamental change in administration thar leads to:1) political development,
economic growth, and
social change.
dministration should evolve so as to commensurate with societal goals.
Development of administration further means cultural change in administration. Thecblonial administrative culture is unsuitable to the changed socio-political ethos 9f thedeveloping world. Our British legacy has adversely affected rhe administration. Theobsolete Acts e.g. Police Act, 1861,'cannot take us towards the path of change.Development of administration should refer to the creation of ability to adjusi to newstimuli or changes. The development of administration aims at qualitative andquantitative transformations in administration with an eye on the performance ofmanagement of affairs. The term also implies technological changesin administrationso as to enable it to adopt new modes or techniques of administration.
administrative development focuses on adaptability, autonomy and coherence in
administration.In short, administrative development is concerned with:1) The capacity of an administrative system to take decisions in order to meet theever increasing demands coming from the environment and with the objective ofachieving larger political and socioeconomic goals.
Increase in size, in specialisation and division of tasks and in theptofessionalisation'of its personnel.
A pattern of increasing effectiveness in the optimum utilisation of availablemeans and further augmentation of the means,
Increase in administrative capability and capacity.
Transformation of existing administrative mechanism into aonew machinerythrough modernising the bureaucracy by external inducement, transfer oftechnology and training.
Replacement bf initiative, practices etc. with those bas@ on ~eakstic-negd?,-._-

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