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History of Pakistan

History of Pakistan

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Published by tariqghayyur2

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Published by: tariqghayyur2 on Dec 03, 2010
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 An Un-Matched History of Islamic Republic of Pakistan1206 –Todate
Compiled byImran Ahmedemranehmed@yahoo.com+923004159514
1206-1526The Delhi Sultanate
Some of the earliest relics of Stone Age man were found in the Soan valley near Rawalpindi,dating back to at least 50,000 years. Predominantly an agricultural region, its inhabitantslearned to tame and husband animals and cultivate crops some 9,000 years ago. Farmingvillages dating from 6000 BC have been excavated in Baluchistan, the North West Frontier Province and Punjab.The Indus Valley Civilization is considered to have evolved around 2600 BC. Built on theruins of fortified towns near Kot Diji, it is now believed to have emerged from farmingcommunities of the area. The Civilization boasted immense cities like Moenjodaro andHarappa. These towns were well planned, with paved main roads, multistoried houses,watchtowers, food warehouses, and assembly halls. Their people developed an advancedscript that still remains un-deciphered. The Indus Civilization's decline around 1700 BC isattributed to foreign invaders, who at some sites violently destroyed the cities. But with recentresearch, historians have become unsure as to the exact causes of decline of the IndusCivilization.Aryans, who were rough cattle breeders, came from Central Asia around 1700 BC, seekinggrazing land for their herds. Their religion was well developed, with gods identified fromelements of nature. They followed a strict caste system, which later became Hinduism. Theywrote the first book of Hindu scripture, the Rig Veda, which was a collection of hymnsremembered through several generations. Some anthropologists believe that there is no realhistorical evidence to prove the coming of Aryans, and consider their coming as a myth.In sixth century BC, the people of the region were getting increasingly dissatisfied with theHindu caste system. When Buddha, son of a Kshatriya king preached equality in men, histeachings were quickly accepted throughout the northern part of the Sub-continent. Aroundthe same time Gandhara, being the easternmost province of the Achaemenid Empire of Persia, became a major power in the region. Its two cities - Pushkalavati, or present dayCharsadda near Peshawar, and the capital Taxila, were the center of civilization and culture.
Alexander the Great invaded the Sub-continent in 327 BC. Conquering the Kalashvalley, he crossed the mighty Indus at Ohind,sixteen miles north of Attock. He thendefeated the mighty elephant army of Porusat Jhelum, and began his march towards thelong Ganges plain. However, he was forcedto plan for homeward sailing when his war-wary troops refused to advance further. Onhis way back, a serious wound, receivedwhile battling the Malloi people at Multan,finally took its toll, and Alexander died in 323BC, leaving his conquests for grab among hisown officers.Chandragupta Maurya was an exiled member of the royal family of Magadha, a kingdomflourishing since 700 BC on the bank of river Ganges. After Alexander's death, Chandraguptacaptured Punjab with his allies, and later overthrew the king of Magadha in 321 BC to formthe Mauryan Empire. After twenty-four years of kingship, his son, Bindusara, who addedDeccan to the Mauryan rule, succeeded Chandragupta.Ashoka, son of Bindusara, was one of the greatest rulers the world has ever known. Not onlydid he rule a vast empire; he also tried to rule it compassionately. After initially causingthousands of lives during his conquest of Kalinga, he decided to rule by the law of piety. Hewas instrumental in spreading Buddhism within and outside the Sub-continent by buildingBuddhist monasteries and stupas, and sending out missionaries to foreign lands.The Greek king of Bactria, Demetrius, conquered the Kabul River Valley around 195 BC. TheGreeks re-built Taxila and Pushkalavati as their twin capital cities in Gandhara. They werefollowed in 75 BC by the Scythians, Iranian nomads from Central Asia, and in about 50 BCby the powerful Parthians, from east of the Caspian Sea.

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