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Anatomy and Physiology

Anatomy and Physiology

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Published by Delixae Phoinix

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Published by: Delixae Phoinix on Dec 25, 2010
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06/10/2013

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Biology24.com
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Rapid Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved
Anatomy and Physiology Core Concept Master Cheat Sheet
 
O1: Introduction to Human Physiology
 
Physiology:
Physiology is the science of body functions; itis the study of mechanical, physical and biochemicalproperties of living organisms.
 
Levels of Organization:
Chemical - made up of atoms andmolecules, Cell - are basic structural and functional units of an organism. Tissue - groups of cells & the surroundingenvironment that work together to produce a specificfunction. Organ – organs are structures that are made of two or more different types of tissues, they have specificfunctions & a defined shape.
 
There are 11 Organ Systems:
1. The IntegumentarySystem, 2. The Skeletal System, 3. Muscular System,4. Nervous System, 5. Endocrine System, 6. CardiovascularSystem, 7. Lymphatic & immune system, 8. RespiratorySystem, 9. Digestive System, 10. Urinary System and 11.Reproductive System.
 
Homeostasis:
The process through which a nearly stableinternal environment is maintained in the body so thatcellular functions can proceed at maximum efficiency.
02: Chemical Basis of Life
 
Organic Molecules:
Monosaccharides contain C, H, and O(1:2:1), Amino acids R-group specifies the identity (20standard) as well as H20 solubility, Fatty acids arehydrocarbon chain plus a carboxyl group and Nucleotidesare polymers which function as genetic material.
 
 
Buffer Solutions:
Buffers are solutions of weak acids orweak bases that resist changes in pH. HCO3_/H2CO3 helpsmaintain the blood pH around 7.4.
 
 
Biochemical Reactions:
The first law: the total energy of the universe is always conserved and the second law: theuniverse tends towards maximum disorder.
 
 
Gibbs Free Energy:
is the net change in free energy(products – reactants), given as kcal/mol or kJ/mol.
 
 
Enzymes:
Energy of activation (Ea) = the free energynecessary to start a reaction.
 
 
Enzyme Activity:
Increase [substrate] and [enzyme] willincrease the reaction rate until all the enzyme’s active sitesare filled (Vmax).
 
 
Eneregy of Activation:
is defined as the free energynecessary to start a reaction, enzymes loer the energy of activation.
 
03: Cells: The Basic Unit of Life
 
Cell Structure:
The major parts of a cell are the nucleus,cytoplasm, and cell membrane.
 
Nucleus:
The nucleus on the control center of the cell,contains a nucleolus and is separated from the cytoplasm bythe nuclear envelope. The nucleus contains the cell’s DNA, atype of nucleic acid.
 
Organelles:
Are compartmentalized structures that performa specialized function within a cell. Golgi apparatus: shipspackages around the cell. Lysosome: destroy waste to cleanup the cell. Smooth ER synthesizes carbohydrates (sugars)and lipids (fats). Mitochondria: produce energy to power thecell. Ribosomes: make proteins for the cell. Rough ER helpsthe attached ribosomes in finishing protein synthesis.
 
 
Cell Membrane:
A selectively permeable structure thatenvelops the cell and protects the cell’s internal environment.Plasma Membrane, the cell’s membrane is made of phospholipids, which have carbohydrate heads and lipid tails.
 
 
Cell Types:
Prokaryotic: include bacteria and othermicroscopic organisms and the do no have any complexorganelles (not even a nucleus). Eukaryotic: include plantand animal cells.
 
04: Tissues of the Human Body
 
Epithelial Tissue:
Is made of cells arranged in a continuoussheet with one or more layers, has apical & basal surfaces.
 
Types of Epithelail Tissue:
(1) Covering & lining epitheliaand (2) Glandular Epithelium.
 
 
Connective Tissue:
contains many different cell typesincluding: fibroblasts, macrophages, mast cells, andadipocytes.
 
 
Muscle Tissue:
is divided into 3 categories, skeletal, cardiacand smooth.
 
Nervous Tissue:
Consists of only two cell types in thecentral nervous system (CNS) & peripheral nervous system(PNS): Neurons and Neuroglia.
 
 
Development:
All tissues of the body develop from thethree primary germ cell layers that form the embryo:Mesoderm, Ectoderm and the Endoderm.
 
 
Cell Junctions:
there are a number of types of junction usedby cells - tight Junctions, gap Junctions, adherens Junctions,desmosomes and hemidesmosomes.
Epithelail Tissue:
 
 
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Rapid Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved
05: The Integumentary System
 
Integument as an Organ:
is an alternative name for skin.The integumentary system includes the skin and the skinderivatives hair, nails, and glands.
 
Derivatives of the Integument:
Hair: functions includeprotection & sensing light touch, Nails: participate in thegrasp & handling of small things and Glands: participate inregulating body temperature.
 
Functions of the Skin
: Thermoregulation - Evaporation of sweat & Regulation of blood flow to the dermis, Cutaneoussensation - Sensations like touch, pressure, vibration, pain,warmth or coolness, Vitamin D production - UV sunlight & precursor molecule in skin make vitamin D, Protection – Thesin acts as a physical barrier and Absorption & secretion –The skin is involved in the absorption of water-solublemolecules and excretion of water and sweat.
 
Epidermis –
The Epidermis is the thinner more superficiallayer of the skin. The epidermis is made up of 4 cell types:(A) Keratinocytes, (B) Melanocytes, (C) Langerhan Cells and(D) Merkel cells - participates in the sense of touch.
 
Dermis:
is the deeper, thicker layer composed of connectivetissue, blood vessels, nerves, glands and hair follicles. Theepidermis contains 3 cell types: (A) Adipocytes, (B)Macrophages and (C) Fibroblasts.
06: Bone, Bone Tissue and Joints
 
Types of Bones:
Muscles are attached to bones and use thebones as an anchor from which to exert forces that result inlimb movement. There 4 main groups of bones: Long bones,Short bones, Flat bones and Irregular bones.
 
 
Clacium Storage:
Calcium is stored primarily in bones andis released into the blood in response to hormones. Calciumis released into the bloodstream in response to parathyroidhormone (PTH). Calcium is deposited in bone in response todecreased PTH levels and increased calcitonin (CT) releasefrom the thyroid gland.
 
 
Bone Structure:
bone is a complex array of osteocytes,canals and blood vessels. Bone matrix is made up of Osteons, which are long narrow cylinders containing bothHaversian and Volkmann canals and Volkmann’s canalswhich connect the individual osteons to each other and tothe periosteum.
 
Bone Marrow:
The bone marrow is the site of red bloodcells, white blood cell and platelet production. B-Cells and T-Cells are produced in the bone marrow and then circulate toother lymphoid organs to be stimulated by antigens.
 
07: Axial Skeleton
 
Axial Skeleton:
provides: (a) structural support for thebody, (b) attachment points for ligaments and muscles, and(c) protects the brain, spinal cord and major organs of thechest. The axial skeleton includes bones of the skull, innerear, chest and spinal column.
 
Bones of the Head:
Can be categorized into two groups: (A)bones of the skull and (B) bones of the face. Bones of theskull: Frontal bone, Parietal bones, Temporal bones, Occipitalbone, Ethmoid bone, Sphenoid bone and the Palatine Bones.Bones of the Face: 2 nasal, 2 maxilla, 2 zygomatic, 2lacrimal, mandible, 2 palatine, 2 inferior nasal conchae andvomer.
 
Bones of the Inner Ear:
The bones of the inner ear arecalled the (a) Malleus (hammer), (b) Incus (anvil) and (c)Stapes (stirrup). These bones function together to transmitsound waves from the external environment to the fluid filledcochlea.
 
Bones of the Chest
: Clavicles (or collar bones), twelve ribs -in the rib cage, 10 pairs that are joined to the sternum andspine and 2 floating pairs, Scapula: also known as theshoulder bladeand the Sternum: also known as thebreastbone.
 
 
Vertebral Column: is divided into 3 regions –
Cervical,thoracic and lumbar.
08: Appendicular Skeleton
 
Appendicular Skeleton:
includes the shoulder girdle, armand hand, leg and foot.
 
Bones of the Shoulder:
The shoulder joint provides aconnection between the chest and the arm. The shoulderincludes: Clavicle, Scapula and the Humerus.
 
Bones of the Upper Extremity:
Humerus, Radius and theUlna.
 
Bones of the Pelvis:
The pelvis is located at the base of thespine and contains two sockets for articulation with the lowerextremities. It contains 3 bones: Ilium, Ischium and thePubis.
 
Bones of the Lower Extremity:
the leg bones are thelargest bones of the body and, along with the ankle and feet,provide support for standing and walking. Femur, Tibia andthe Fibula.
 
 
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Rapid Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved
09: Muscles and Muscle Tisuue
 
Organization of Muscles: Cardiac:
Cardiac muscle is aninvoluntary striated muscle found exclusively in the heart,Smooth: Smooth muscle is an involuntary non-striatedmuscle found in the walls of hollow organs such as thebladder, and in blood vessels and Skeletal muscle fibers aremade up of many myofibrils surrounded by sarcoplasmicreticulum.
 
Sarcomere:
dark striations of skeletal muscle that aremade up of a lattice of thick and thin filaments, made up of actin and myosin.
 
Sliding Filament Model:
after the signal to contract comesfrom the central nervous system, an action potential spreadsover the muscle fiber.
 
 
Excitation-Contraction coupling:
is the process by whichan action potential causes calcium (Ca2+) release and crossbridge cycling.
 
 
Length-Tension Relationship:
The amount of tension(force of contraction) a skeletal muscle creates isdependent, in part, on the length of the muscle itself.
 
10: The Muscular System
 
Muscle Naming System:
 
Muscles are named, based onvarious characteristics: location, size and number of insertions.
 
Muscle Lever Action:
Skeletal muscles produce movementby contracting and exerting force on tendons, which in turnpull on bones. When producing a body movement, the bonesact as levers and the joints act as fulcrums.
 
Muscles of the Head and Neck:
orbicularis, buccinator,frontalis, occipitalis, masseter, temporalis andsternocleidomastoid.
 
Muscles of the Neck and Shoulder:
Sternocleidomastoid,Trapezius, Deltoid, Rotator Cuff.
 
Muscles of the Chest:
include the Pectoralis Major,Pectoralis Minor and the Intercostal Muscles.
 
Muscles of the Back:
include the Trapezius, LatissimusDorsi and the Serratus Posterior.
 
Muscles of the Arm:
include the Coracobrachialis, Biceps,Brachialis and the Triceps.
11: The Nervous System
 
Nervous System:
The system of cells, tissues, and organsthat regulates the body's responses to internal and externalstimuli.
 
 
Neuron:
The basic functional unit of the nervous system,consisting of a cell body, and its processes – the dendrites,axon and terminal branches.
 
 
Neurotransmitter:
Biological molecules released from theterminal branches in response to a propagating actionpotential.
 
Central Nervous System (CNS):
Includes nerves in thebrain and spinal cord.
 
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS):
Includes all nervesoutside the CNS.
 
Somatic Motor System:
Controls voluntary movement.
 
Autonomic Motor System:
Controls involuntary musclemovement (i.e. heart beat); sympathetic control increaseseffects and parasympathetic control decreases effects.
12: Central Nervous System
 
Neuron:
The basic functional unit of the nervous system,consisting of a cell body, and it’s processes: the dendrites,axon, and terminal branches.
 
 
Synapses:
The space between Terminal branches of oneneuron and the dendrites of another into whichneurotransmitters are released.
 
 
Dendrites:
The neuronal processes that detectneurotransmitters from adjacent neurons.
 
 
Terminal Branches:
The part of the neuron which sendsimpulses to another neuron.
 
 
Axon:
The major process that conducts impulses from thedendrites to the terminal branches.
 
Myelin Sheath:
The fatty membranes that cover the axon,allowing for faster electrical conduction.
 
Nodes of Ranvier:
Gaps in the myelin sheath. The electricalimpulses jump from one node to the next on an axon.
 
Electrical Potential:
A separation of charge, which gives theability to send electricity.
 
White Matter:
CNS tissue made up of myelinated neuronsproviding pathways of communication between grey matterareas.
 
Grey Matter:
CNS tissue made up of unmyelinatedinterneurons involved in information processing.
 
Muscle FiberSarcolemma(Plasma Membrane)TransverseTubule
Sarcoplasmic ReticulumNucleus
 
First –class Lever
 
First –class Lever
 
Second –class Lever
 
Second –class Lever
 
Third–class Lever
 
Third–class Lever
 
The Nervous SystemCentral PeripheralBrain
 
Spinal CordMotor SensoryAutonomic SomaticSympatheticParasympathetic

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