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05: The Integumentary System
Integument as an Organ:
is an alternative name for skin.The integumentary system includes the skin and the skinderivatives hair, nails, and glands.
Derivatives of the Integument:
Hair: functions includeprotection & sensing light touch, Nails: participate in thegrasp & handling of small things and Glands: participate inregulating body temperature.
Functions of the Skin
: Thermoregulation - Evaporation of sweat & Regulation of blood flow to the dermis, Cutaneoussensation - Sensations like touch, pressure, vibration, pain,warmth or coolness, Vitamin D production - UV sunlight & precursor molecule in skin make vitamin D, Protection – Thesin acts as a physical barrier and Absorption & secretion –The skin is involved in the absorption of water-solublemolecules and excretion of water and sweat.
The Epidermis is the thinner more superficiallayer of the skin. The epidermis is made up of 4 cell types:(A) Keratinocytes, (B) Melanocytes, (C) Langerhan Cells and(D) Merkel cells - participates in the sense of touch.
is the deeper, thicker layer composed of connectivetissue, blood vessels, nerves, glands and hair follicles. Theepidermis contains 3 cell types: (A) Adipocytes, (B)Macrophages and (C) Fibroblasts.
06: Bone, Bone Tissue and Joints
Types of Bones:
Muscles are attached to bones and use thebones as an anchor from which to exert forces that result inlimb movement. There 4 main groups of bones: Long bones,Short bones, Flat bones and Irregular bones.
Calcium is stored primarily in bones andis released into the blood in response to hormones. Calciumis released into the bloodstream in response to parathyroidhormone (PTH). Calcium is deposited in bone in response todecreased PTH levels and increased calcitonin (CT) releasefrom the thyroid gland.
bone is a complex array of osteocytes,canals and blood vessels. Bone matrix is made up of Osteons, which are long narrow cylinders containing bothHaversian and Volkmann canals and Volkmann’s canalswhich connect the individual osteons to each other and tothe periosteum.
The bone marrow is the site of red bloodcells, white blood cell and platelet production. B-Cells and T-Cells are produced in the bone marrow and then circulate toother lymphoid organs to be stimulated by antigens.
07: Axial Skeleton
provides: (a) structural support for thebody, (b) attachment points for ligaments and muscles, and(c) protects the brain, spinal cord and major organs of thechest. The axial skeleton includes bones of the skull, innerear, chest and spinal column.
Bones of the Head:
Can be categorized into two groups: (A)bones of the skull and (B) bones of the face. Bones of theskull: Frontal bone, Parietal bones, Temporal bones, Occipitalbone, Ethmoid bone, Sphenoid bone and the Palatine Bones.Bones of the Face: 2 nasal, 2 maxilla, 2 zygomatic, 2lacrimal, mandible, 2 palatine, 2 inferior nasal conchae andvomer.
Bones of the Inner Ear:
The bones of the inner ear arecalled the (a) Malleus (hammer), (b) Incus (anvil) and (c)Stapes (stirrup). These bones function together to transmitsound waves from the external environment to the fluid filledcochlea.
Bones of the Chest
: Clavicles (or collar bones), twelve ribs -in the rib cage, 10 pairs that are joined to the sternum andspine and 2 floating pairs, Scapula: also known as theshoulder bladeand the Sternum: also known as thebreastbone.
Vertebral Column: is divided into 3 regions –
Cervical,thoracic and lumbar.
08: Appendicular Skeleton
includes the shoulder girdle, armand hand, leg and foot.
Bones of the Shoulder:
The shoulder joint provides aconnection between the chest and the arm. The shoulderincludes: Clavicle, Scapula and the Humerus.
Bones of the Upper Extremity:
Humerus, Radius and theUlna.
Bones of the Pelvis:
The pelvis is located at the base of thespine and contains two sockets for articulation with the lowerextremities. It contains 3 bones: Ilium, Ischium and thePubis.
Bones of the Lower Extremity:
the leg bones are thelargest bones of the body and, along with the ankle and feet,provide support for standing and walking. Femur, Tibia andthe Fibula.