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U.S. Intervention in Haiti: 1994

U.S. Intervention in Haiti: 1994

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Published by Leif Brecke
U.S. Intervention in Haiti under President Bill Clinton was primarily shaped by American
business men, their involvement in politics and covert operations, and their ideological push for
neoliberalism. I will show that attempts to portray President Clinton as perhaps faulted but
fundamentally concerned with promoting democracy in Haiti fall flat when faced with the
overwhelming evidence of complicity in promoting anti-democratic movements and inpushing for anti-democratic economic restructuring.
U.S. Intervention in Haiti under President Bill Clinton was primarily shaped by American
business men, their involvement in politics and covert operations, and their ideological push for
neoliberalism. I will show that attempts to portray President Clinton as perhaps faulted but
fundamentally concerned with promoting democracy in Haiti fall flat when faced with the
overwhelming evidence of complicity in promoting anti-democratic movements and inpushing for anti-democratic economic restructuring.

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Published by: Leif Brecke on Jan 12, 2011
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Leif BreckeProfessor Cramer U.S. Intervention in Haiti: 1994U.S. Intervention in Haiti under President Bill Clinton was primarily shaped by American business men, their involvement in politics and covert operations, and their ideological push for neoliberalism. I will show that attempts to portray President Clinton as perhaps faulted butfundamentally concerned with promoting democracy in Haiti fall flat when faced with theoverwhelming evidence of complicity in promoting anti-democratic movements and in inundemocratically pushing for anti-democratic economic restructuring. But first, I'll start with a basic background.
Duvalier dictatorships
In 1956 Voodoo physician Francois “Papa Doc” lead a successful coup in Haiti, holdingrigged elections a year later. In 1964, backed by the Tontons Macoute Militia, he declared himself  president-for-life. His son, Jean-Claude “Baby Doc” succeeded him when he died in 1971. In 1986, popular rebellion convinces him to flee the country. Lieutenant-General Henri Namphy becomeshead of the government. When Leslie Manigat becomes president in 1988, he is overthrown byBrigadier-General Prosper Avril.
Aristide Elected
Finally, in 1990 Jean-Bertrand Aristide is elected president with 65% of the vote. The U.N.Observer Group for Verification of the Elections in Haiti approved the elections as “highlysuccessful” (Blakeley 157). Aristide becomes president in February of 1991 and is dejected in acoup that September led by Lieutenant-General Raoul Cédras. In 1993 the US imposes embargothat exempts U.S. corporations (Blakeley 159). In April 22, coup leaders massacre Aristide'ssupporters in what is known as the Raboteau Massacre – more on that later. Leaders of Black Congressional Delegation push the president to support intervention (Hendrickson 49). After theCongressional and Presidential delay 1994, US forces support Aristide's return to power in 1994under “Operation Uphold Democracy”. In July, UN Security Council Resolution 940 is passed “for 
 
a US-led multinational force to invade Haiti and reinstate Aristide” (Blakeley 157). Aristide finallyreturns to office in October. UN “peacekeepers” replace US soldiers in 1995 while Aristide's partywins elections.
Blum
William Blum in his work,
 Killing Hope: US Military and CIA Interventions Since World War 2,
makes a compelling case that U.S. President Clinton sought to impose a neoliberal agendaon Haiti. He further documents that Clinton only returned Aristide to power under public pressure,manipulated the circumstances, only after securing neoliberal members in Aristide's cabinet and pardon for the coup leaders. He outlines how Clinton set a neoliberal, anti-democracy agenda inHaiti, but does not clearly outline why. I will demonstrate a few of the key players among the business-intervention complex.
CIA Establishment of Death Squads
Unifying right wing political and military organizations, Emmanuel Constant formed theFront for the Advancement and Progress of Haiti (FRAPH) on the advice of the CIA and DefenseIntelligence Agency to “balance the Aristide movement” in 1986 (Blakeley 157-158). The CIAadmitted that Constant and other would-be coup leaders had been paid by the CIA shortly thereafter (Blakeley 157). Constant was given a CIA stipend of $700 a month (Blakeley 157). This deathsquad was involved in the Raboteau Massacre. In the New York Court, Constant was sentencedfrom 12 to 37 years in prison for, in part what the judged deemed "truly heinous record of violence,murder, torture and intimidation" (Ives). Constant had organized a dockside mob that had chased aU.S. military vessel on October 11, 1993 while on the CIA payroll (Blum 376).Coup leaders Lieutenant-General Raoul Cédras and Francois “received military training inthe United States” (Blum 377). Clinton had even appointed Baby Doc's lobbyist, Ron Brown, to theseat of Secretary of Commerce, Ron Brown (Blum 378). Brown had previously ran Jesse Jackson's presidential campaign and was pivotal in Clinton's campaign as well.
 
Covert Operations Against Labor
J. Peter Grace Jr. was Chairman of the Board of American Institute for Free Labor Development (renamed American Center for International Labor Solidarity or Solidarity Center), a joint program between the AFL-CIO, USAID, and the National Endowment for Democracy(NED), when it received funding from the CIA to destroy the Haitian labor organization CentraleAutonomne des Travailleurs Haitiens (CATH) (Blakeley 161). NED and USAID, “gave $189,000 toseveral civil groups that included the Haitian Center for the Defense of Rights and Freedom, headed by Jean-Jacques Honorat” who “became prime minister in the coup government” (Blum 373). Alsoreceiving funding was a Catholic Radio station, Radio Soleil that “refused to air a message fromAristide” (Blum 374). NED provided substantial funding in Haiti, primarily to three conservative organizations – the International Institute for Research and Development (IHRED), the Federation of UnionWorkers (FOS), and the General Organization of Haitian Workers (OGITH). IHRED received$500,000 (Blum 373).These organizations supported presidential candidate Marc Louis Bazin, former World Bank executive and Minister of Finance and Economy under the Jean-Claude Duvalier dictatorship andActing President of Haiti between June of 1992 and June of 1993 (Blakeley 161, Blum 373). Nonetheless, when the elections occurred, he only received 14% of the vote to Aristide's 67%.In 1986, officers of the Haitian army were recruited by the CIA to form the NationalIntelligence Service (SIN) which engaged in drug trafficking (Blum 375).
Grace's Web of Intelligence and Business Cohorts
J. Peter Grace, Jr. was director of the First National City Bank (Citibank) and the KennecottCopper Co. He was the Chairman of the Advisory Board of Americares which included PrescottBush, Jr. The President of Americares is Zbigniew Brzezinski, the Former Director of the TrilateralCommission, the former Director of aforementioned NED, former Director of AmnestyInternational, on the National Security Advisory Task Force for President George H. W. Bush, and

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