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Growth Development of the Head

Growth Development of the Head

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Published by Dabala Harish Reddy

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Published by: Dabala Harish Reddy on Jan 30, 2011
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01/16/2012

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Growth & Development of the Head
Growth:
It is the physiologic process by which an organism becomes larger.
Development:
It is a sequence of changes from the fertilization of the ovum tomaturity; it's related to cell division, differentiation, growth & maturation.
Why to study growth & development:
-You have to understand normal dental & facial growth & development towork with children; you can't distinguish the abnormal from the normal if youdon't understand the normal pattern of development.-Dentists can manipulate growth to some extent & it's important to do so intreating developmental problems in children.
Mechanism of bone growth (bone formation):
1-Endochondral ossification:
-This occurs @ cartilaginous growth centers where chondroblasts lay downa matrix of cartilage within which ossification occurs.-Examples of these centers are:
Spheno-occipital synchondrosis.
Condylar cartilage.
 Nasal Cartilage.
2-Intramembranous ossification:
-Bone is laid down & desorbed by the investing periosteum & byendosteum within the bone. This could result in:a)
 
Sutural growth
@ the junction between the adjacent bones; This type of  bone formation is active in filling the fontanelles & in the general growth of calvarium. b)
Remodeling:
as new bone is added to the surface, an equivalent endostealresoption takes place to preserve the internal architecture of the bone.
 
Remodeling:
-Is the deposition of new bone in some areas together with resorption o previously formed bone in other areas.-Remodeling is required because, as a bone enlarges , any given part of that bone becomes transformed into a new part , and this involves continuousconversion of all parts.
The whole bone simultaneously increase in size by periosteal &endosteal activity on all other surfaces of the bone in proportion tothe amount of soft tissue expansion.
Cartilage involved in different sites of facial & cranial growth,grows secondarily, in response to the displacement movement.
Basic concepts of human growth:
Growth disposition is similar for all healthy individuals:-
The prenatal period
from conception to birth (40weeks).-
Infancy:
First 2 years after birth.-
Childhood:
Girls 2-10 years.
Boys 2-12 years.-
Adolescence:
Girls 10-18 years.
Boys 12-20 years.
The extend to which an individual attains his or her potential forgrowth is determined predominately by extrinsic or environmentalfactors:Extrinsic factorsEnvironmental factors
1.Nutrition.2.Illness.3.Exercise..4.Climate.1.Oral habit.2.Pathology.3.Caries.4.Premature loss oteeth.5.Metabolic disease.
 
Growth of the child face:
-The face is a very complex structure, and its growth & development arethe result of many interacting process.-The fully grown skull is not simply a larger version of the infant form. Theadult skull differs not only in size but also in shape, indicating that there must be a process of differential growth with same bones growing more extensively thanothers.-Facial appearance is the result of growth of both hard & soft tissues.
Sites of skull growth:
1-Sutural growth.2-Surface apposition & remodeling resorption (alveolar bone formation).3-Growth of the contained organs (brain , eye ball & tongue).
Growth of the head:
-
Cranium Growth:
Cranial vault.
Cranial Base
.
-
Face Growth:
Maxilla
Mandible.
Cranium Growth:
a-Cranial vault:
-It surrounds & protects the brain except the lower part where it rests in thecranial base.-
It is made up of:a)
The frontal bone.
b)
Two parietal bones.
c)
Squamous part of temporal bone.
d)
Squamous part of occipital bone.-These bones are separated from each other by sutures.-
Growth takes place through:1-
Sutural growth.
2-
Apposition & remodeling resorption to adjust the shape of each bone.
3-
Apposition of the bone on the external surface.
4-
Apposition of the bone to the facial surface of the frontal bone duringdevelopment of frontal air sinuses.

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