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Growth Development of the Head

Growth Development of the Head

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Published by Dabala Harish Reddy

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Published by: Dabala Harish Reddy on Jan 30, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Growth & Development of the Head
It is the physiologic process by which an organism becomes larger.
It is a sequence of changes from the fertilization of the ovum tomaturity; it's related to cell division, differentiation, growth & maturation.
Why to study growth & development:
-You have to understand normal dental & facial growth & development towork with children; you can't distinguish the abnormal from the normal if youdon't understand the normal pattern of development.-Dentists can manipulate growth to some extent & it's important to do so intreating developmental problems in children.
Mechanism of bone growth (bone formation):
1-Endochondral ossification:
-This occurs @ cartilaginous growth centers where chondroblasts lay downa matrix of cartilage within which ossification occurs.-Examples of these centers are:
Spheno-occipital synchondrosis.
Condylar cartilage.
 Nasal Cartilage.
2-Intramembranous ossification:
-Bone is laid down & desorbed by the investing periosteum & byendosteum within the bone. This could result in:a)
Sutural growth
@ the junction between the adjacent bones; This type of  bone formation is active in filling the fontanelles & in the general growth of calvarium. b)
as new bone is added to the surface, an equivalent endostealresoption takes place to preserve the internal architecture of the bone.
-Is the deposition of new bone in some areas together with resorption o previously formed bone in other areas.-Remodeling is required because, as a bone enlarges , any given part of that bone becomes transformed into a new part , and this involves continuousconversion of all parts.
The whole bone simultaneously increase in size by periosteal &endosteal activity on all other surfaces of the bone in proportion tothe amount of soft tissue expansion.
Cartilage involved in different sites of facial & cranial growth,grows secondarily, in response to the displacement movement.
Basic concepts of human growth:
Growth disposition is similar for all healthy individuals:-
The prenatal period
from conception to birth (40weeks).-
First 2 years after birth.-
Girls 2-10 years.
Boys 2-12 years.-
Girls 10-18 years.
Boys 12-20 years.
The extend to which an individual attains his or her potential forgrowth is determined predominately by extrinsic or environmentalfactors:Extrinsic factorsEnvironmental factors
1.Nutrition.2.Illness.3.Exercise..4.Climate.1.Oral habit.2.Pathology.3.Caries.4.Premature loss oteeth.5.Metabolic disease.
Growth of the child face:
-The face is a very complex structure, and its growth & development arethe result of many interacting process.-The fully grown skull is not simply a larger version of the infant form. Theadult skull differs not only in size but also in shape, indicating that there must be a process of differential growth with same bones growing more extensively thanothers.-Facial appearance is the result of growth of both hard & soft tissues.
Sites of skull growth:
1-Sutural growth.2-Surface apposition & remodeling resorption (alveolar bone formation).3-Growth of the contained organs (brain , eye ball & tongue).
Growth of the head:
Cranium Growth:
Cranial vault.
Cranial Base
Face Growth:
Cranium Growth:
a-Cranial vault:
-It surrounds & protects the brain except the lower part where it rests in thecranial base.-
It is made up of:a)
The frontal bone.
Two parietal bones.
Squamous part of temporal bone.
Squamous part of occipital bone.-These bones are separated from each other by sutures.-
Growth takes place through:1-
Sutural growth.
Apposition & remodeling resorption to adjust the shape of each bone.
Apposition of the bone on the external surface.
Apposition of the bone to the facial surface of the frontal bone duringdevelopment of frontal air sinuses.

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