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immunology

immunology

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Published by Danielle

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Published by: Danielle on Feb 20, 2011
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02/16/2014

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 Immunology Def'n:
the branch of biomedical science concerned with the response of the organism to
 antigenic challenge
, the recognition of self from non-self,and all of the biological (
in vivo
), serological (
in vitro
), and physical chemicalaspects of immune phenomena
 defence mechanisms
include all physical, chemical and biological properties of the organismwhich reduce it's susceptibility to foreign organisms, material, etc.functionally these may be divided into those which are static, or
innate
to the organism, andthose which are responsive, or
 adaptive
to a potential pathogen or foreign substance
 Functional Division
1.
innate system
evolutionary older systemfirst line of defencenon-specificresistance is static, ie. doesn't improve with repeated exposure,
 no memory
often sufficient to prevent diseasei.physical defencesskin & epithelial surfaces, ciliacommensual floraacidic gastric contentsfeverii.biochemical defencessoluble- lysosyme, acute phase reactants- complement, fibronectin, interferoncellular- natural killer cells, RES phagocytes2.
adaptive system
second line of defenceactivated once the innate system has been penetrated/overwhelmedis
 specific
to the infective agentexhibits
 memory
with an enhanced response to subsequent challengei.soluble factorsii.cellular factors
Immunology Notes
 
THE INNATE SYSTEMPhysical Defences
1.skin2.epithelial surfaces, cilia3.gastric acid secretion4.commensual flora5.inflammatory circulatory response6.fever
Soluble Factors
 Lysozymes
distributed widely in secretionsact by cleaving bacterial cell wall proteoglycans
 Fibronectin
family of closely related
 glycoproteins
synthesised by endothelial cells & fibroblastsinvolved with,a.non-specific
 opsonization
b.facilitation of phagocytosisc.wound healing and tissue repairlevels are decreased in patients following,a.major burnsb.major surgeryc.traumad.sepsis, MODSe.DICcontrolled trials using
 cryoprecipitate
, or purified human fibronectin have
 failed 
to demonstratean improvement in organ function, or a reduction in mortality in patients with septic shock 
Immunology Notes
2
 
Complement
series of > 15 plasma proteins, functions including,1.chemotaxisC
5a
, C
567
2.mast-cell degranulationC
3a
, C
5a
(histamine release)3.opsonizationC
3b
4.cytolysisC
56789
(membrane attack complex)5.kinin-like activityC
2
frag.6.viral neutralisationC
1
, C
4
activation may be via,1.
classical pathway
involves Ag-Ab interaction (IgG, IgM)effectively a part of the
 adaptive
system2.
alternate pathway
recognition of repetitive sugar moieties, ie. bacterial cell wallspart of the
innate
system
Immunology Notes
3

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