to recruit or rely on word of mouth. Terms like
are used, to refer totraffickers (Nirmala Niketan, College of Social Work, 2003; Gupta 2003).
: People are reportedly recruited at places like cinema halls, bus stops, railwaystations, airports, streets and their homes. Other places mentioned are cafes, restaurants, beauty contests and beauty parlours. State and national highways, quarry andconstruction work sites, and areas where locals are displaced without proper rehabilitation may also be sites for potential victims.
: Traffickers choose special times for recruitment. They take advantage of difficult periods, either before the harvesting season or during a drought, when many locals look elsewhere for income to survive (HRW 1995). Traffickers also keep themselves informedabout severely impoverished areas or those which have suffered climatic, economic or political disasters (Johnston and Khan 1998: 53; ISS 2003a). They also reportedly recruit people during festivals (ISS 2003a, and 2003c).
: The ranges of the tactics or strategies reportedly used vary from the extremelyviolent (drugging, kidnapping and abduction) to persuasion, material inducements, befriending and deception.
Characteristics of traffickers
: Traffickers are usually young men and middle-aged womenwho are significantly older than the young women/children they recruit. They are nativesand agents who travel back and forth from home countries/regions to receiving regionsand generally have links with the villages to which the victims belong.Often, these agents speak several languages (Giri 1999: 77, Tumlin 2000). They mayhave multiple roles. For instance, those who fuel migration, with its outcome intrafficking, may often also be the people who facilitate other, less exploitative, forms of migration, as in the case of refugees (Tumlin 2000).
: Trafficking is said to involve a range of players ‘along the road from acquisitionto exploitation’ (ILO 2002a: 13). They are generally found in the context of organisedtrafficking. Networks may involve the police, visa/passport officials, railway/bus authorities andemployees, taxi/autorickshaw drivers or rickshaw pullers (DWCD 1996). The variousroles have been classified as financiers or investors; procurers or recruiters; organisers;document forgers; corrupt public officials or protectors; brothel operators and the ownersand managers of sex establishments; escorts, guides or travel companions and crewmembers (Richard 1999; Scholenhardt 1999; Raymond 2002).DWCD (1996) has identified two types of traffickers: primary and secondary. The latter are said to operate behind the scenes with connections in government circles, which areused to provide themselves with protection. Pimps and procurers are the primarytraffickers.