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Raja Lumu - Founding of Selangor Malaysia Malay Bugis

Raja Lumu - Founding of Selangor Malaysia Malay Bugis

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Raja Lumu/Sultan Salehuddin: The founding of the Selangor dynasty
Raja Lumu/Sultan Salehuddin: The founding of the Selangor dynasty

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Published by: Raistz on Mar 30, 2011
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09/12/2014

 
RAJALUMU/SULTANSALEHUDDIN:THEFOUNDINGOFTHESELANGORDYNASTY*
byKhooKayKim
ThereisaunityinPeninsularMalayhistorywhichhaseludedthenoticeofmanyhistorianswhohavewrittenonMalaysia.TIllsunityisderivedfromtheMelakaSultanate.ThehistoriographyoftheSultanateisquitesubstantia!butthehistorian'sperceptionhastendedtofocusonpowerpoliticsandmaritimetrade.Mclaka'sroleastheprogenitorofagreattraditionhasseldombeenwellunderstood.Historyandculturealeintertwined.Theunderstandingofhistorydependsonanadequatecomprehensionofthecultureofthepeopleconcerned.TomanyhistorianstheMelakaSultanateendedin1511whenitwasconqueredbythePortuguese.ButinthePeninsularMalayworld,thegreattraditionwhichitestablishedhaslivedon.Malay-sia'ssystemofmonarchy
is
Melaka'slegacyandthereforecannotbeunderstoodbyamereperusalofthemodemConstitution.Melaka'shegemony,initshey-day,extendedtoallpartsofthePeninsulaandbeyondtheStraitsof
Melaka,
ThathegemonywastheninheritedbyJohor.TheDynastysurvivedthoughthegeographicalfocushadchanged.InMalaypoliticalculture,legitimacyrestedonnotpoliticalboundarybutpedigree.In1816,therulerofPerakwrotetotheGovernorofPenang:1amakingoftheancientrace.Iamhewhoholdstheroyalswordandthedragonbetelstandandtheshellfishwhichcameoutofthesea,whichcamedownfromBukit
Siguntang,
I
It
wasabeliefwidely"propagatedthattheMelakaDynastywasdescendedfromAlexandertheGreat(IskandarZulkamam).Itsveracitywasassumed.Alexander's'Greatness'endowedtheMelakaDynastywitha
daulat
whichwasatoncesublime,awesomeandimpeccable.
Daulat
is
adifficultconcepttoexplain.
It
isthatqualitypossessedbyonewhobestqualifiestorule.Genealogicalsuitability
is,
ofcourse,thefirstquality.Beyondthatthequalitiesthataresaidtobepossessedbythe'right'rulerbecomesomewhatmystical.Anumberofreasons,notreallyperceivedbutfeltorsensed,mayconvince,thatpeoplethataRajahasordoesnothave
daulat,
Further,acomparisonmaybemadebetweenoneprinceandanotherfor
daulat
couldexistinvariousdegrees.Anditisbelievedthattherulerwhodoesnothavetheproper
daulat
wouldnotenjoyahappyreign.Ontheotherhand,thosewhoopposearulerwith
daulat
wouldsufferseriousaffliction.Bethatasitmay,theMelaka-JohorKingdomeventuallyfragmented,wornoutbyfrequentexternalincursionsandinternalstrife.
In
thelate15th:andearly16thcenturies,Aceh,Perak,PahangandJohorwereinvolvedincontinualconflict
2
In1966,SultanMahmud,descendeddirectlyfromtheMelakarulinghouse,
was
assassinated.TheBenda-hara,AbdulJalil,ascendedthethrone,onlytobechallengedbyRajaKecilofSiak(leaderoftheMinangkabau)whoclaimedtobetheposthumoussonoftheassassinatedSultan
Mahmud,
RajaKecilseizedthethroneofJohorandAbdul
Jalil,
inturn,waslaterassassinated.~
*
SeeFootnote
 
JMBRASVOL.58
JohorMalays,however,continuedtoviewiththeMinangkabauforcontrolofJohor,InterposedbetweenthemweretheBugis,tradersandsoldiersoffortunewithoutequalintheMalayArchipelago,whosepresencesubsequentlytippedthescaleinfavouroftheMalays.ButtheMalayssoondiscoveredthattheBugiswerenolongercontentmerelytoservewhentheyhadthepowertoholdsway.TheBugishadbegunsettlinginthePeninsulasinceatleastthelate17thcentury,aBugissettlementhavingbythenemergedatKualaSelangor.In1681theywerestrongenoughtobecalleduponbyaKedahprincetohelpinasuccessiondispute.By1701,alargenumbermigratedtoKualaLinggiaswell.
It
wasatthisjuncturethattheGovern-mentofJohorawoketotherealitythattheBugiswerebeginningtoconstituteaturbulentelementin
its
domainfortheirmovementintoKualalinggihadtakenplacewithoutJohor'sapproval."Momentarily,however,thematterwassettledamicably;SultanAbdul
Jalil
(previous-lytheBendahara)allowedtheBugistodevelopSelangorandtoremainatKualaLinggi,TheybegantoappearinMelakawithofficialsealsindicatingthattheywereintheserviceoftherulerandhigherchieftainsofJohor,Formorethanadecadethereafter,theBugissubjugatedthemselvestoJohor'spoliticalauthority.ButtheyweregrowinginstrengthespeciallywiththearrivaloftwoBugisprinces,DaingMarewahandDaingMenampok.In1713,theBugiswereapproachedbyayoungerbrotheroftherulerofKedahtohelpunseatthesultan.Hepromisedthemalargequantityof
tin
ifhewassuccessful.But,afterhistriumph,hewassowellreceivedbythepeoplethathefailedtofulfilhispromise.TheenragedBugislootedKedah,Thisevent,however,ledtothefirstmajorconflictbetweentheBugisandtherulingeliteofJohor,WhentheRajaMudaofJohor,TunMahrnud,heardthattheBugishadcarriedoffasubstantialbootyfromKedah,hedemandedthathalfof
it
shouldbesurrenderedtothesultan.TheBugisdefiedtheorder.
It
wouldnotbewrongtosurmisethattheBugisattitudewaspromptedbythefactthattheywerethennotyetanintegralpartoftheJohorsociety.WhiletheywerepreparedtosubmittoJohor'sadministrativesystem,theywerenotgovernedbythelocaltraditionoftotalsubmissiontothemonarch.Theydidsurrender10percentofthebootyaswasthecustomarypracticeinSulawesibutnomore.'Johordecidedtotakepunitiveaction.But,despiteassistancefromRembauandtheneighbouringterritories,theBugisprevailed.ThisconfrontationbetweenJohorandtheBugiscontinuedintermittentlyfortwoyears.Witheachfailure,Johor'sresourceswerefurthersapped;theBugis,ontheotherhand,becamemoreconfidentandresolute.WiththeBugisproblemunresolved,Johor,in1718,hadtocontendwithaMinang-kabauinvasionledbytileredoubtableRajaKecil.TheJohorcapitalhadbeenshiftedtoRiauin1709andshiftedbacktotilemainlandin1716.
It
wasthelatterthatRajaKecilattacked.ByMarch1718,hehadtakencontrolofthecapital.OstensiblyRajaKecilwasnowthenewrulerofJohor.HereducedSultanAbdulJaliltohispre·1700positionofBendahara,But,intruth,theKingdomofJohorwasindisarray.Abdul
Jalil
retreatedtoTrengganuwhereheattemptedtore-assemblehisgovernment,conferringtitlesonvariousministers,noblesandwarriors.RajaKecilretainedSiakashisbasepreferringtobewithhisownpeoplethantostayatJohoror2
PART21985
Riau.TheBugisremainedasignificantandfreeclementinthepowerstrugglebetweentheMalaysandtheMinangkabau.
It
wasAbdulJalil'sBendahara,TunAbdullah,whosucceededingainingthevaluableallegianceoftheBugisleader,DaingMarewah.TheBugisleaderpr~ceededt~conveytoRajaKecilinnouncertaintermshisconditionforlivinginpeace
Wl~
theMmangkabau.RajaKecilwasaskedtorestoreAbdul
Jalil
andTunAbdullahtoth~1IformerofficesofSultanandBendaharn.RajaKecil,ontheotherhand,counteredwiththedemandthatTunAbdullahshouldbesurrenderedto
him
ashisconditionforpeacefulco-existenceWiththeBugis;thealternativewaswar.Andwarensued.InthefirsttrialofstrengththeBugishadaslightedge...Althoughforthenextcoupleofyearsastalemateprevailed,theBugJSweremcontroloftheStraitsofMelaka.Theytookfulladvantageoftheexistingpoliticalvacuumtoharassshippinginthearea.ByMarch1721,DaingMarcwahcouldconfidentlyannouncethattheBugisterritory,underhissway,stretchedfromBcrnamtoMelaka.However,insofarasRajaKecilwasconcerned,DaingMarewahhadmerelyscotchedthesnakenotkilled
it.
On14March1721,RajaKecilledalargeexpeditioninanattackonKualaLinggibutwassoonforcedtoretreat.Bythenhefeltcompelledtotumhisattentiononcemoreto
J
ohorwherehiscontrolwas,tosaytheleast,amorphous.TheformerSultanAbdulJalilhadmeanwhilemovedtoPahang.RajaKecilviewedthiswithconsiderableanxietyandquicklyhadhisadversaryassassinated....Havingdisposedofonethreat,RajaKecilreturnedtohis
mission
whichw~thedestructionoftheBugis,Inlate1721,KualaLinggiwasoncemoreattacked.AgamtheattackersfailedandbeatahastyretreattoRiau.TheBuglspursued.Afiercebattlefollowed.TheMinangkabauactuallyhadtheupperhandbutastormaroseandturned~tideinfavouroftheBugis.TheMinangkabaufledandRiauwascaptured.TheBUgIsplunderedRiauandmassacredalltheMinangkabauthere..Whathappenednext,afterfivedaysoflooting,wasquiteunprecedented
in
thehistoryofmostothercountries.InsteadofseizingcontrolofJohor,theBugisinstalle~~inkeepingwithtraditional
adat,
RajaSulairnan,sonofthedeceasedSultanAbdulJalil,asthenewrulerofJohor.ThisdevelopmentwouldstillhavebeenlessextraordinaryhadtheBugis,aftertheinstallation,withdrawnfromJohorandreturnedtoKualaSelangororKualaLinggi.TheeventswhichfollowedamplytestifytotheBugisdesiretoestablishformally~helrpositionwithintheJohorpoliticalstructure.AftertheinstallationofSultanSulau.nanhadbeencompleted,DaingMarewahandDaingMenampokwerebothconferredtitlesbythenewsultan.DaingMarewahwasappointedtotileofficeofYangDipertuaMudawiththetitleofSultanAlauddinRiayatShahibniOpu.DaingMenampokwasaccordedthetitleofSultanIbrahim.Ataglancetheuseofthetitle'Sultan'bythreepersonsinthesamekingdomappe.arsaradicaldeparturefromtradition.Onemightconjecture~atitwasaBugis~novatlOnindicatingtheall-powerfulpositionwhichtheyassumed
ill
therestoredkingdomofJohor,Oncloserreflection,itwasperhapsnotverydifferentfromasituationwheretheofficesofYangDipertuanDewaandSultanco-existed,Thisdidnotrepresentanaltera-tionofthepoliticalstructurebutconstitutedavariationwithinthestructure."Atanyrate,inMalaysociety,theheadofthekingdomwasmoreproperlyknownas
3
 
JMBRASVOL.58
the
YangDipertuan.
'Sultan'wasanhonorifictitleprecedinghisname.Inthecaseofthenewly-installedrulerofJohorin1721,theproperformofaddresswouldbe"SultanSulaimanibnial-MarhurnMangkatdiKualaPahang,YangDipertuanJohordanscgalajajahantakluknya,"?DaingMarcwahorSultanAlauddinRiayatShallibniOpuwas
Yang
Dipertuan
Muda.
Hedulyperformedtheceremonysubordinatinghimselftotheauthorityofthe
Yallg
Dipertuan
andallhisBugisfollowerstooperformedtheceremonyofallegiancebeforeSultanSulaimanforhealonehadthe
daulat,
ThisceremonyofobeisanceandtheassumptionofMalaytitlesmeantindeedthattheBugisvoluntarilysubscribedtotheMalaypoliticaltradition.Culturally,therefore,theconquerorsthemselveshadbeenconquered.TheyhadacceptedthesymbolsandalltheparaphernaliaofMalaypoliticalcultureestablishedduringthegloriousperiodoftheMelakaSultanate.AmorecomplexsituationprevailedinlateryearsinNegeriSembilan.inthelate18thcentury,agroupofBugissettlersleftRembauwhencoercionwasappliedtoinducethemtoacceptthe
AdatPerpatih
whichprohibitedendogamy.TheyproceededtosettledownatalittleterritoryalongSungaiLinggiwhichwasgiventhenameof'Linggi',distinctfromSungaiLinggithebasefromwhichtheearlierBugisconductedraidsonthewesterncoastofthePeninsula.
8
AlthoughtheBugisinLinggicouldnotavoidbeingabsorbedintotheNegeriScm-bilanpoliticalsystem,andtheirleaderaccordinglywasconferredthetitleofDato'MudaLinggi,theydidnotfullyparticipateinthetraditionalceremonies.Forexample,theDato'MudaLinggiwasnotinvolvediniliaelectionofheadmenofclans
(suku}
andsub-clansandformorethan150years,theBugiscontinuallyresistedattemptstoincorporatethemintotheMinangkabauclansystem."NorweretheBugiswillingtoobservetheprincipleofexogamysofaithfullyadheredtobytheMinangkabau+?TheBugis,however,facednosuchproblemofculturalintegrationinJohor.NotthattheyreadilyintegratedwiththeMalaysforBugisconsciousnesscontinuedtobepronouncedlongaftertheeventofl721.Bugishistorians,RajaAliHajibeingthemostprominent,couldnotavoidethnicbiaswhenwritingthehistoryofJohor,Andtheofficeof
YangDipertuan
Muda
wasreservedexclusivelyforleadersoftheBugiscommunity.But,inaverygeneralsense,theBugisandtheJohorMalaysbothsubscribedtothe
AdatTemenggung.
TheMinangkabauchallengetotheBugisinJohordidnotendin1721.Until1728RajaKeeilmadesporadicattemptstodefeattheBugis,
all
tonoavail.In1722,forexample,theBugisbecameoncemoreembroiledinKedah'scivilwar.RajaKecilquicklysupportedtheKedahfactionattackedbytheBugis,YetagaintheBugistriumphed.Andtheygrewinstrength.Beforehisdeathin1728,DaingMarewahalsoinvadedPerakhelp-ingayoungerbrothertoattackthereigningSultanAlauddinMughayatShall.DaingMarewahwassucceededbyDaingChelakastheYangDipertuanMudaofJohor.Untilhedied
in
1745,DaingChelakcontinuedtheBugispolicyofaggression.AlthoughtheYangDipcrtuanMudaofRiau,DaingChelakinthelastfewyearsofhislife,spentmuchofhistimeinKualaSelangor.'
1
DaingChelakhadtwosonswhoearnedrenowninMalaysianhistory.OnewasRajaHajiwhowastodiefightingaheroicbattleagainsttheDutchatTelukKetapang,Melaka,in1784;theotherwasRajaLumuwhowasdestinedtofoundtheSelangorDynasty.4
PART21985
The18thcenturyinMalaysianhistoryiseventfulinmorewaysthanone.HistorianswhoaresufficientlyimpressedbythedominatingpoweroftheBugiswouldhardlydissentifoneweretolabelthatcentury"TheBugisEra".Butoneotherimportantdevelopmenthasnotbeengivendueattention.FourofthepresentMalaysianstateswerefoundedinthatcentury:NegeriSembilan,Trengganu,KelantanandSelangor.Ofthefour,theNegeriSembilanKingdomremainsthemostobscure,chronologicallyspeaking.Thereisaprevailingbelief
(the
sourceofwhich
is
notclear)thatthekingdomofNegeriSembllanemergedin1773.ThefirstYangDipertuanBesarwasRajaMelewarofPagarRuyongorigin.GrantedthatRajaMelewarwasthefirstYangDipertuanBesar,andtherearenogoodreasonstodoubtthis,contemporaryDutchrecordsindicateveryclearlythathewasalreadypresentinNegeriSembilanin1727.Winstedt,consideredanauthorityonNegeriSembilanhistory,wrote:Asearlyas1677NaningandRernbauhadinstalledastheirkingaMlnangkabauprincefromtheeastcoastofSumatrabutaccording'totheNaningaccounthewaskilledasanimposter.ASungaiUjongtraditionrecordsthatthenextMinangkabauprincewassummonedbySungaiUjong,Johol,NaningandJelcbuandborethenameofRajaKasah,butinexpertatmatriarchalcustomhewassenthometoSuma-tra.Afterhim,saysthesametradition,cameRaja'Adil,whobeingaswehaveseenaBugisnaturallyfailedatmatriarchallaw.ThencameanimposterRajaKhatibalsonoauthorityonMinangkabaucustomthoughhemarriedWamaMasoneofthedaughtersofNaamfirstPenghuluofUluMuar:defeatbythegreatestMinangkabauprinceofthemall,RajaMelewar,involvedtheexecutionofNaamandthe
flight
ofRajaKhatib.Afterthisvictoryoverhisrival,RajaMelewarissaid-probablybyconstitutionalfiction-tohavesettledonthePcnajis,atributaryoftheRcmbauriveruntilhewassummonedtothethronebythefourUndangsorterritorialchiefs.12.
It
isinterestingtocomparethiswithwhathasbeenwrittenbyamodemhistorianusingcontemporaryDutchsources.ReferringtoRajaKecil'sdefeatoftheBugisfleetinlate1727,hewrites:His[RajaKecil's]supremacyontheseaswasnowunchallenged,buthisattemptstoconsolidatehispositionintheMinangkabauareasoftheMalayPeninsulaformerlyundertileKingdomofJohormetwithsomeobstacles.RajaKecilsentacertainRajaKhatibtotakecontrolofRembauandtooverthrowitshead,RajaMalewa.Aftersuccessfullycompletingthismission,RajaKhatibtriedtoextendhisinfluencetotheDutchprotectorateofNaningwiththehelpoftheMinangkabauareaofSriMenanti,Johol,andTampin.Butbeforehecouldundertakethisventure,hewasforcedtofleetoNaningbyasuccessfulcomebackbyRajaMalewaofRembau,TheDutchnowseizedRajaKhatibandsent
him
backtoSiakon15February172SYBothaccountsareclearthattherewasastruggleforpowerbetweenRajaMclewarandRajaKhatib.Theoralsources,understandably,areunabletodatetheeventandtheexplanationgivenisnotsomuchfactualasanattempttolegitimizethepositionofRajaMelewar,Winstedt,infact,hadaccesstoDutchrecordsaswellwhichhefaithfullycitedindiscussinganumberoftreatiessignedbetweentheDutchandthevariousMinangkabauterritories,Innoneofthetreatiessignedinthe1750sdidthenameofRajaMelewar
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