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sp ch15 prt4

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Published by irregularflowers
Notes on Speilvogel Chapter 15 (part 4: Limited Monarchy and Republics)
Notes on Speilvogel Chapter 15 (part 4: Limited Monarchy and Republics)

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Published by: irregularflowers on Aug 28, 2008
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10/02/2013

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Sp. Ch.15 pt 4Pages 432-444
Limited Monarchy and RepublicsI.
In eastern E, the Polish aristocracy controlled a virtually powerless king. TheDutch Republic and England resisted the power of hereditary monarchsThe Weakness of the Polish Monarchy
I
. Much of Polish history revolved around the bitter struggle between the crownand the landed nobility.
A.
The dynasty union of Jagiello, grand prince of Lithuania, w/the P queenJadwiga resulted in a large Lithuanian-Polish state in 1386, although itwas not until 1569 that a formal merger occurred.
B.
The union of L and P under the Jagiello dynasty had created the largestkingdom in Christendom at the beginning of the 15thc.
C.
P-L played a major role in eastern E in the 15thc and also ruled muchof Ukraine by the end of the 16thc
II
. P-L had a unique government system in that assemblies of nobles elected theking and carefully limited royal power. The power of the nobles also enabledthem to keep the P peasantry in a state of serfdom
A.
In 1572, when the Jagiello dynasty ended, a new practice arose of choosing kings, who they thought would bring new alliances.
B
. When the throne was awarded to the Swede Sigismund III (1587-1631),the new king dreamed of creating a vast P empire that would includeRussia and possibly Finland and Sweden. P not only failed to meet thisgoal, but by the end of the 17thc had become a weak, decentralized state.
III.
It was the elective nature of the P monarchy that reduced it to impotence.
A.
The Sejm, or P diet, was a 2-chamber assembly in which landownerscompletely dominated the townspeople and lawyers who were alsomembers.
B.
To be elected to the kingship, prospective monarchs had to agree toshare power w/the Sejm in matters of taxation, foreign and military policy,and the appointment of state officials and judges
C.
The power of the Sejm had disastrous results for central monarchialauthority, for the real aim of most of its members was to ensure thatcentral authority would not affect their local interests. The acceptance of the liberum veto in 1652, whereby the meetings of the Sejm could bestopped by a single dissenting member, reduced the government to virtualchaos.
IV.
P, then, was basically a confederation of semi-independent estates of landednobles. By the late 17thc, it had also become a battleground for foreign powers,who found the nation easy to invade but difficult to rule.The Golden Age of the Dutch Republic
I.
The 17thc has often been called the Golden Age of the Dutch Republic as theUnited Provinces held center stage as one of E’s greatest powers.
II.
Like F and England, the UP was an Atlantic Power, underlining the importanceof the shift of political and economic power from the Med basin to the countriesof the Atlantic seaboard.
 
III.
The United Provinces of the Netherlands became to core of the modern Dutchstate. The state was officially recognized by the Peace of Westphalia in 1648
IV.
With impendence came internal dissension.
A
. There were 2 chief centers of political power in the new state. Each providence had an official leader known as a stadholderate who wasresponsible for leading the army and maintaining order.
B.
Beginning with William of Orange and his heirs, the house of Orangeoccupied the stadholderate in most of the 7 provinces and favored thedevelopment of a centralized government w/themselves as hereditarymonarchs.
C
. The States-General, an assembly of representatives from every province, opposed the Organist ambitions and advocated a decentralizedform of government.
D.
For much of the 17thc, the republican forces were in control. But in1672, burdened w/war against F and England, the UP turned to William III(1672-1702) of the house of Orange to establish a monarchial regime. Buthis death in 1702 w/o a direct heir enabled the republican forces to gaincontrol once more, although the struggle lasted throughout the 18thc
V.
Underlying D prominence in the 17thc was its economic prosperity, fueled bythe role of the D as carriers of E trade. But warfare proved disastrous to the DutchRepublic.
A.
Wars w/F and England placed heavy burdens on D finances andmanpower.
B.
English shipping began to challenge what had been D commercialsupremacy, and in 1715, the D were experiencing a serious economicdecline.Life in Seventeenth-Century Amsterdam
I.
By the beginning of the 17thc, Amsterdam had replaced Antwerp as thefinancial and commercial capital of E.
A.
In 1570, Ams had 30,000 inhabitants, by 1610, that number haddoubles as refugees poured in, especially from the Spanish Netherlands.
B.
In 1613, this rapid growth caused the government to approve an “urbanexpansion plan” that increased the city’s territory from 500 to 1,800 acresthrough the construction of 3 concentric canals. The canals made it possible for merchants and artisans to use the upper stories for their housesand storerooms for their goods.
C.
The city grew to 200,000 by 1660
II.
The exuberant expansion of Ams in the 17thc owed much to the city’s role as acommercial and financial center of E.
A.
Ams merchants possessed vast fleets of ships, many of which wereused for North Sea herring catch. Ams based ships were also importantcarriers for the products of other countries.
B.
The Dutch invention of the fluyt, a shallow-draft ship of large capacity,enabled the transport of enormous quantities of cereals, timber, and iron.
C.
The quantity of goods brought to Ams soon made the city a crossroadsfor many of Es chief products.
 
D.
Ams was the chief port for the Dutch West Indian and East Indiantrading companies.
E.
City industries turned imported raw materials into finished goods,making Ams an important producer of woolen cloth, refined sugar andtobacco products, glass, beer, paper, books, jewelry, and leather goods.
F.
Some of the city’s great wealth came from war profits: by 1700, Amswas the principle supplier of military goods in E.
III.
Trading profits provided large quantities of capital for investment. Itsfinancial role was greatly facilitated by the foundation in 1609 of the ExchangeBank of Amsterdam. The city also founded the Amsterdam Stock Exchange for speculating in commodities.
IV.
At the top of Ams society were a select group of prosperous manufacturers,shipyard owners, and merchants, whose wealth enabled them to control the citygovernment of Ams as the Dutch Republic’s States General.
A.
In the 1
st
½ of the 17thc, the Calvinist background of the wealthy Ams burghers led them to adopt a simple lifestyle. They wore dark clothes andlived in simply furnished homes.
B.
For the 2
nd
½ of the 17thc, the wealthy burghers began to reject their Calvinist heritage, a transformation apparent in their more elaborateclothes.England and the Emergence of Constitutional Monarchy
I.
One of the most prominent examples of resistance to absolute monarchy camein 17thc England, where king and Parliament struggled to determine the role thateach should play in governing the nation.
A
. The struggle over the issue was complicated by religious controversy.W/the victory of Parliament came the foundation for constitutionalmonarchy by the end of the 17thcKing Jams I and Parliament
I.
The Stuart line of rulers was inaugurated w/the accession to the throne of Elizabeth’s cousin, King James VI of Scotland, who became King James I of England
A.
James understood little about the law, customs, and institutions of England. He espoused the divine right of kings, the belief that kingsreceive their power directly from God and are responsible to no one exceptGod. This viewpoint alienated Parliament, which had grown accustomedunder the Tudors to act on the premise that monarch and P together ruledEngland together.
B.
P expressed its displeasure w/James’s claims by refusing his requestsfor additional money needed by the king to meet the increased cost of government.
C
. Some members of P were also alienated by James’s religious policy.The Puritans—Protestants in the Anglican church inspired by Calvinisttheory—wanted James to eliminate the Episcopal system of churchorganization used in the Church of England(in which the bishop playedthe major administrative role) in favor of a Presbyterian model(used inScotland and patterned after Calvinist church organization in Geneva,

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