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Stephen Harper and Tom Flanagan: Our Benign Dictatorship, Next City, Winter 1996/97

Stephen Harper and Tom Flanagan: Our Benign Dictatorship, Next City, Winter 1996/97

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Published by: CBCPolitics on Mar 30, 2011
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Next City, Winter 1996/97.Our benign dictatorshipCanada's system of one-party-plus rule has stunted democracy. Two prominent conservatives present the case for more representative government by Stephen Harper and Tom FlanaganDiscussionCanadians will be going to the polls this year, with the Liberals seemingly headed for asecond majority government. Most political pundits credit the use of clever strategies bythe Liberals, saying they've moved to the right to rob Reform of the deficit issue whilekeeping their image as guardians of medicare and defenders of the social safety net.Whether the Liberal strategy succeeds in the next federal election will be revealed soonenough. But those who view a second Liberal majority as a momentary opportunisticsuccess, or as the tit for the tat of two consecutive Mulroney governments, profoundlymisunderstand history. The Liberals and the Conservatives don't alternate in theircontrol of the Canadian Parliament. For a hundred years since 1896, Liberal government has been the rule, their opposition habitually weak, and alternative governments short-lived.Although we like to think of ourselves as living in a mature democracy, we live, instead,in something little better than a benign dictatorship, not under a strict one-party rule,but under a one-party-plus system beset by the factionalism, regionalism and cronyismthat accompany any such system. Our parliamentary government creates aconcentrated power structure out of step with other aspects of society. For Canadiandemocracy to mature, Canadian citizens must face these facts, as citizens in othercountries have, and update our political structures to reflect the diverse politicalaspirations of our diverse communities.Winds of ChangeCONSERVATIVES TRIED AN UPDATE. IN MAY 1996, the Winds of Change conferenceorganized by columnists David Frum and Ezra Levant took place in Calgary. It assembled an array of conservative activists, journalists, politicians and opinion leadersfrom across the country, many of whom are now creating a more permanent organization of conservative thinkers. But in its prime objective -- to bring Reform andthe federal Progressive Conservatives together -- it had no impact whatsoever.With the Bloc Quebecois attracting former PC voters in Quebec, and the PCs and theReform party elsewhere dividing the conservative vote, the Liberal party appears
 
headed for a long period of hegemony in Ottawa. It commands the support of over half of Canadian voters in public opinion surveys, while four opposition parties scrap overthe rest.Outside Parliament, however, Canadian conservatism is at its strongest level in manyyears. The oldest conservative institutions -- the National Citizens' Coalition, the FraserInstitute, Alberta Report and its sister magazines -- have been joined by new researchinstitutes, mass organizations and publishing houses. The Donner Canadian Foundation,with real money to spend, has accelerated the growth of a conservative intellectualnetwork.In the media, conservative columnists are multiplying "like zebra mussels," as TorontoStar columnist Richard Gwyn put it. Conrad Black has recently assumed control of theSoutham chain of newspapers, including most of Canada's large metropolitan dailies.Those papers, monolithically liberal and feminist under previous management, arequickly becoming more pluralistic, with a strong representation of conservative voices.Public policy reflects the growing conservatism of public opinion. Canada is not thesame country it was 10 years ago. Almost everyone in public life now takes balancedbudgets, tax reduction, free trade, privatization of public enterprise and targeting of social welfare programs for granted, while critics on the left bemoan their loss of influence.Not very long ago, the age of political conservatism also seemed to have dawned inCanada. In 1984, the Progressive Conservative party, led by Brian Mulroney, won overdisparate groups, winning the election overwhelmingly -- 50 per cent of the popularvote and 75 per cent of the seats in the House of Commons. Mulroney also won areduced, but still solid, majority in 1988. His breakthrough among Quebec'sfrancophone voters, which had eluded the Progressive Conservative party for most of this century, underlay these victories. It took 58 of 75 Quebec seats in 1984 and 63 in1988, compared with only one in 1980.But the grand coalition fell apart as quickly as it was formed. Across a wide range of issues, Mulroney disillusioned his voters. In the West, the Reform party attracted theallegiance of conservative voters, once the most loyal of PC supporters. In Quebec, thenew Bloc Quebecois captured the majority of the francophone vote. In the 1993 federalelection, Reform won 52 seats, the Bloc 54 and the PCs only 2. The huge disparity inseats stemmed from the first-past-the-post electoral system; the PCs got 16 per cent of the popular vote, as compared with 14 per cent for the Bloc and 19 per cent forReform.The Mulroney coalition had shattered into its three constituent parts: a populist andstrongly conservative element, most numerous in Alberta and British Columbia but alsopresent in Saskatchewan and Manitoba as well as rural and suburban Ontario; a
 
francophone nationalist element in Quebec; and a centrist, Tory element scatteredacross the country, particularly in high-income urban areas and in some parts of AtlanticCanada. The differences among these elements are illustrated nearby.REFORM SUPPORTER, IN ADDITION TO BEING THE CONSERVATIVE on economic andsocial matters, have a populist mistrust of government and view Quebec's demandsnegatively. Bloc supporters are all over the map on social and economic issues. LikeReformers, they mistrust government, but their devotion to Quebec really sets themapart. PC voters more resemble the Liberals than Reform on social and cultural issues;in fact, they are often to the left of the Liberals. However, they are closer to Reform oneconomic and fiscal issues.Little has changed since 1993. In a poll last September, Reform dipped to 12 per cent while the Progressive Conservatives rose to their post-election high of 17 per cent, but even that improvement (since wiped out) would have implied no great recovery.Because their votes are geographically scattered, PCs could get 17 per cent of thenational vote and elect only a handful of MPs, perhaps none at all. At these levels of popular support, Reform would also fare poorly; but because its support is concentratedin Alberta and British Columbia, Reform would elect enough members to remain arecognized party in the House of Commons. Meanwhile, Bloc Quebecois support amongfrancophone voters continues at more or less the same level. It could lose a fewcontests to the Liberals in the next election but will probably hold onto the majority of Quebec seats. The three fragments of the Mulroney coalition will stay in the game forthe foreseeable future. Reform has enough of a territorial base to elect members. TheBloc will thrive as long as the issue of separation polarizes Quebec politics. And theProgressive Conservatives have enough money, activists and covert support fromprovincial Conservative parties to ensure that they will not quickly fade away.Forestalling a second Liberal centuryCANADA MAY WELL REMAIN SOMETHING NEAR A BENIGN DICTATORSHIP. In 1995,one of us (Harper) warned that Canada might enter a one-party-plus phase, with theLiberals the only broadly based party, and the other parties representing more narrowregional, ethnic or ideological constituencies. Beneath the textbook label of having atwo-party-plus system of government (the Liberals and the PCs, plus the NDP), Canadahas long been moving away from democracy.A two-party alignment of Conservatives and Liberals emerged quickly afterConfederation in 1867 but began to break up in the watershed election of 1911. In that year, the Quebec journalist Henri Bourassa mobilized a new francophone voting bloc --autonomists who supported Robert Borden's Conservative government, but onlyconditionally. Borden lost the francophone vote entirely in the wartime election of 1917,yet still won handsomely by forming an alliance -- the Union government -- with themany Liberals who supported wartime conscription. That alliance proved temporary,

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