Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 13 (2006) 157–168
The effect of consumer’s psychographic variablesupon deal-proneness
Eva Martı ´nez, Teresa Montaner
Universidad de Zaragoza, Facultad de Ciencias Econo´ micas y Empresariales, Gran Vı´ a, 2, 50005 Zaragoza, Spain
Companies are increasingly attaching more importance to sales promotion within their communication programs. The mainreason for the increase in the use of promotions is their immediate effect on the consumers. However, there are some consumers thatdo not respond to promotions. This study analyses the psychographic traits associated with deal-proneness. A personal survey hasbeen conducted with a sample of 425 individuals who regularly buy package food and cleaning products. In the study, three kinds of deal-proneness are differentiated: proneness towards store ﬂyers, proneness towards coupons and proneness towards in-storepromotions. The results prove that there are relationships between some psychographic characteristics of consumers and deal-proneness. In general, price-conscious consumers are deal-prone. However, savings are not the only reason to buy a product onpromotion. Deal-proneness is inﬂuenced by other aspects as impulsiveness, innovativeness or shopping enjoyment.
2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sales promotion; Market segmentation; Consumer behaviour
Promotional marketing is increasingly gaining im-portance in communication budgets of companies.Marketing managers attribute this high investment insales promotion to the immediate effects of these actionson sales (Schultz et al., 1998). Because of the littleempirical evidence for the response and effectiveness of different promotional instruments, over the last decadesnumerous studies have tried to provide organisationswith some decision-making guidelines for the design of promotional campaigns.Some studies have focused on analysing whether allconsumers show the same response to sales promotion,deﬁning the proﬁles of more sensitive consumers to thistype of action (Webster, 1965;Ailawadi et al., 2001).
Several types of variables have been used to deﬁne theseproﬁles. Initial research paid more attention to socio-demographic aspects of consumers, but the results werenot fully conclusive and some other variables weresuggested (Schneider and Currim, 1991;Grover and
Srinivasan, 1992). Some studies have emphasised thepsychographic proﬁle of the deal-prone consumerobtaining remarkable results (Montgomery, 1971;Lich-
tenstein et al., 1990;Ailawadi et al., 2001). Conse-
quently, this research will focus on analysing theimportance of the consumer’s psychographic proﬁle intheir behaviour towards sales promotions. More speci-ﬁcally, we will attempt to identify different types of response to promotional actions. In addition, therelationship between these responses will be related withdifferent psychographic traits.This paper proceeds as follows: First, we revise theliterature which analyses the consumer response topromotional actions and relates proneness to promo-tions with different psychographic traits of consumers.In the next section we deﬁne the hypotheses to becontrasted in the study and explain the methodologyused in the empirical part of our study. We proceed then
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2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.doi:10.1016/j.jretconser.2005.08.001
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email@example.com (E. Martı ´nez),firstname.lastname@example.org (T. Montaner).