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CAM101 Complete Course Notes Reduced Size

CAM101 Complete Course Notes Reduced Size

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Published by: haydenfarquhar on Jun 11, 2011
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CAM101Foundations of Medicine 12007
Course Study Notes
compiled byHayden Farquhar June 2007
 
 
Page
2
 
These course note have been compiled by Hayden Farquhar for the unit CAM101: Foundations of Medicine 1 in the degree Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery. They are not intended to be inthe hands of anyone but the person who compiled it. Hayden Farquhar is not claiming this to be his ownwork; indeed this information is not correctly cited and it is never the intention of the compiler for thiswork to be reproduced, sold, or used by anyone other than himself, as a reference study aid.This note set omits the course components of cell biology and immunology.
 
 
Page
3
 
HISTOLOGY ................................................................................................................................................................................ 1
 
E
PITHELIA
 ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 1
 
Characteristics of epithelium: ..................................................................................................................................................... 1
 
Classification of epithelium: ....................................................................................................................................................... 2
 
E
PITHELIAL CELL SPECIALIZATION
................................................................................................................................................... 4
 
G
LANDS AND GLANDULAR TISSUE
.................................................................................................................................................... 8
 
C
ONNECTIVE
T
ISSUE
...................................................................................................................................................................... 16
 
What is connective tissue? ........................................................................................................................................................ 16 
 
Cells of connective tissue: ......................................................................................................................................................... 16 
 
 Fibroblasts ................................................................................................................................................................................ 16 
 
 Extracellular Matrix ................................................................................................................................................................. 17 
 
 Embryonic connective tissue: ................................................................................................................................................... 21
 
 Loose connective tissue: ........................................................................................................................................................... 22
 
M
USCLE
T
ISSUE
.............................................................................................................................................................................. 30
 
Types of muscle tissue: .............................................................................................................................................................. 30
 
Cardiac muscle: ........................................................................................................................................................................ 33
 
 N
ERVOUS
T
ISSUE
............................................................................................................................................................................ 36
 
Synapses: ................................................................................................................................................................................... 38
 
Myelination of axons: ............................................................................................................................................................... 38
 
H
ISTOLOGY OF THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM
............................................................................................................................... 42
 
Structures of the skin ................................................................................................................................................................. 42
 
 Layers and tissues of the skin .................................................................................................................................................... 42
 
 Epidermis .................................................................................................................................................................................. 42
 
 Epidermis and dermis ............................................................................................................................................................... 44
 
 Appendages of the skin .............................................................................................................................................................. 46 
 
BIOCHEMISTRY – NUTRITION AND METABOLISM ................................................................................... 49
 
A
MINO ACIDS
,
PROTEINS AND ENZYMES
......................................................................................................................................... 49
 
Structure of amino acids and proteins ...................................................................................................................................... 49
 
 Proteins ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 50
 
 Protein and amino acid turnover in the body ........................................................................................................................... 51
 
 Imbalances in protein and amino acid turnover ....................................................................................................................... 53
 
 Enzymes ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 54
 
 Proteins and enzymes in diagnosis ........................................................................................................................................... 56 
 
C
ARBOHYDRATES
........................................................................................................................................................................... 57
 
Structure of common carbohydrates in the body and in foods ................................................................................................. 57 
 
 Functions of glucose and glycogen ........................................................................................................................................... 58
 
Glucose and glycogen turnover in the body ............................................................................................................................. 59
 
Starches ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 60
 
 Dietary fibre .............................................................................................................................................................................. 60
 
Glycosaminoglycans ................................................................................................................................................................. 60
 
Carbohydrates in diagnosis ...................................................................................................................................................... 60
 
 Is carbohydrate essential in our diet? ...................................................................................................................................... 61
 
L
IPID
(
FATS
) ................................................................................................................................................................................... 61
 
Structure of fatty acids and triglycerides .................................................................................................................................. 61
 
 Functions of fatty acids and triglycerides ................................................................................................................................. 62
 
Triglyceride and fatty acid turnover in the body ...................................................................................................................... 63
 
Specialised lipids ...................................................................................................................................................................... 64
 
 Lipids in diagnosis and therapy ................................................................................................................................................ 65
 
Summary of fatty acid usage ..................................................................................................................................................... 65
 
M
ICRONUTRIENTS
.......................................................................................................................................................................... 66
 
Some roles of vitamins .............................................................................................................................................................. 66 
 
 Roles of some minerals and trace elements .............................................................................................................................. 67 
 
A
 
H
EALTHY
D
IET
........................................................................................................................................................................... 68
 
 Nutrient Reference Values (NRV) ............................................................................................................................................. 68
 
 Dietary guidelines for Australians, 2003 .................................................................................................................................. 68
 
M
ETABOLISM
 – 
BASIC PRINCIPLES
.................................................................................................................................................. 70
 
 Key metabolic situations ........................................................................................................................................................... 70
 
 Key ‘energy’ molecules: ATP, ADP and AMP ......................................................................................................................... 72
 
C
ATABOLIC AND ANABOLIC PROCESSES
......................................................................................................................................... 74
 
 Key fuels used ........................................................................................................................................................................... 74
 
 Fundamental process in catabolism – oxidation ...................................................................................................................... 74
 
 Aerobic catabolism ................................................................................................................................................................... 75
 
 Fuel catabolism under anaerobic conditions is much less efficient ......................................................................................... 76 
 

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