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VanWees_2D Numerical Modeling P-T-t path: Dynamics of Extension & Inversion (Betics, Spain)_Tectonophysics 1992

VanWees_2D Numerical Modeling P-T-t path: Dynamics of Extension & Inversion (Betics, Spain)_Tectonophysics 1992

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Published by Koen de Jong
Delaminated simple shear with low-angle faults located only at lower crustal levels is found to be the sole 2D numerical thermo-mechanical model consistent with the P-T-t data. A heating phase is associated with a finite extension of 80 km in latest Oligocene-Early Miocene times that induced tectonic emplacement of ultramafic rocks. Subsequent rapid cooling occurred during inversion of the extensional structure by compression. The inversion locked after 60 km of finite convergence, after which overthrusting took place that was compensated by pure shear deformation in the lower crust. The Wernicke simple shear model fails to explain the observed temperatures in excess of 500°C and is not consistent with the occurrence of ultramafic rocks in the westernmost parts of the Betic Cordilleras.
Delaminated simple shear with low-angle faults located only at lower crustal levels is found to be the sole 2D numerical thermo-mechanical model consistent with the P-T-t data. A heating phase is associated with a finite extension of 80 km in latest Oligocene-Early Miocene times that induced tectonic emplacement of ultramafic rocks. Subsequent rapid cooling occurred during inversion of the extensional structure by compression. The inversion locked after 60 km of finite convergence, after which overthrusting took place that was compensated by pure shear deformation in the lower crust. The Wernicke simple shear model fails to explain the observed temperatures in excess of 500°C and is not consistent with the occurrence of ultramafic rocks in the westernmost parts of the Betic Cordilleras.

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Published by: Koen de Jong on Jun 26, 2011
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Tecfonophysics,
203 (1992) 305-324Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam305
Two-dimensional
P-T-t
modelling and the dynamicsof extension and inversion in the Betic Zone (SE Spain)
J.D. van Wees, K. de Jong and S. Cloetingh
Institute of Earth Sciences, Vrije Uniuersiteit, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HVAmsterdam, The Netherlands
(Received December 14, 1990; revised version accepted April 15, 1991)ABSTRACTVan Wees, J.D., De Jong, K. and Cloetingh, S., 1992. Two-dimensional
P-T-r
modelling and the dynamics of extension andinversion in the Betic Zone (SE Spain). In: E. Banda and P. Santanach (Editors), Geology and Geophysics of theValencia Trough, Western Mediterranean.
Tectonophysics, 203: 305-324.
The Internal Zone of the Betic Cordilleras offers a unique opportunity to study the dynamics of lithospheric processes atmid crustal levels, which controlled the formation and evolution of the southeastern margin of Iberia. In this paper wepresent the result of two-dimensional numerical modelling of
P-T-t
paths related to latest Oligocene and Early Mioceneextension and inversion in the Betic Zone. The ages of
P-T-t
loops
are constrained by an extensive data set ofgeothermo-barometric and geochronological data, including 4oAr/39Ar laser probe data. We investigate the thermo-mecha-nical evolution of the Betic Zone using numerical models for simple shear, pure shear and combined shear. The Wernickesimple shear model fails to explain the observed temperatures in excess of 500°C and is not consistent with the occurrence ofintrusions of ultramafic rocks in the western Betics. However, the delaminated simple shear model with low-angle faultslocated only at lower crustal levels, is found to be consistent with the
P-T-t
data.After a heating phase, associated with a finite extension of 80 km, rapid cooling occurred reflecting inversion of theextensional structure by NW-SE to N-S directed compression. Palaeo-rheological models for the latest Oligocene-EarlyMiocene times demonstrate the important role of the detachments produced during crustal extension for the dynamics ofthe subsequent inversion phase. The modelling strongly suggest that inversion locked after 60 km of finite convergence.After locking of the inversion, overthrusting in a northward direction occurred, which is compensated by pure sheardeformation in the lower crust in the southeastern part of the Betic Zone.
Introduction
The eastern margin of Iberia forms the south-ern termination of the West European Rift sys-tem (Fig. 1). The main basins in the Iberianbranch of this system, the Valencia trough andthe Alboran basin were formed in a late Oligoceneand younger extensional tectonic regime (Vegasand Banda, 1982; Banda et al. 1983; Rehault etal., 1984; FontbotC et al., 1990). Seismic datashow that the crustal thickness of the IberianPeninsula diminishes towards these offshore
Correspondence to: J.D. van Wees, Vrije Universiteit, Institutefor Earth Sciences, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam,The Netherlands.
basins (Banda and Ansorge, 1980; Banda et al.,1983; Zeyen et al., 1985). This feature is alsoclearly expressed by the pattern of Bougueranomalies (Van den Bosch, 1974, Casas andCarb& 1990). The magnetic characteristics of boththe Alborin basin and the Valencia trough sug-gest that these are underlain by strongly attenu-ated continental crust (Galdeano and Rossignol,1977). The presence of relatively large masses ofultramafic rocks in the westernmost Betics andnorthern Morocco (Kornprobst, 1969; Loomis,1975; Westerhof, 1977) indicate that extensionaltectonics also involved the subcrustal lithospherein the area.Both the Valencia trough and the AlboranBasin (Fig. 1) are the site of concentrated Burdi-galian and younger volcanism of talc-alkaline and
0040-1951/92/$05.00 0 1992 - Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. All rights reserved
 
306
alkaline affinity (Ferrara et al., 1973; Bellon andBrousse, 1977; Marti et al., 1990). Furthermore,the Valencia trough is characterized by an ele-vated heat flow, which continues southeastwardsinto the Betic Cordilleras (Albert-Bertran, 1979;Maillard et al., 1990). The Betic Cordilleras expe-rienced an important phase of reheating (Bakkeret al., 1989; De Jong, 1990) related to extensiontectonics.The Alboran Basin is nearly completely sur-rounded by metamorphic rocks of the Betic-Riforogen, whereas the Valencia trough formed at
.I.D. VAN
M t:t \
111 21
the location of a Mesozoic and Tertiary basin.Similarity in timing and nature of tectonic eventsin both rifted basins indicates that they retlectthe same geodynamic process, now exposed atdifferent erosional levels. The Internal Zone ofthe Betic Cordilleras offers the possibility ofstudying the dynamics of the extensional andinversion tectonics at mid-crustal and deeper lev-els. Furthermore, a high quality
P-T-r
database(De Jong, 1991) for the area has enabled investi-gation of the spatial and temporal variation intectonic processes. Previous work was focused on
/
1o"w
Alpine deformed Mesozoic and Tertiary rocks(with minor reworked Paleozoic rocks)Flysch Units
Latest Oligocene
-
Earty
Miocene rift
structuresm ThrustsiInternal Zones of the Betic Cordilleras and Rif(Alpine metamorphic rocks)
PerktoWs
Kabyllan Massifs
Fig. 1. Sketch map of the westernmost Mediterranean area (modified after Ricou et al., 1986), showing the major Alpine structuralprovinces, The location of the eastern Betic Cordilleras of southern Spain is indicated by the inset. Rift structures modified afterRehault et al., 1984.
 
P-T-r
MODELLING AND THE DYNAMICS OF EXTENSION AND INVERSION
307
the tectono-metamorphic evolution of the Beticplex consists of unmetamorphozed or very low-Zone, based on
P-T-t
data (Bakker et al., 1989;grade metamorphic rocks (Durand-Delga, 1968;De Jong, 1990, 1991) and geochronological dataEgeler and Simon, 1969). The External Zone(De Jong et al., 1992). Here we present theconsists of deformed sediments originally de-results of a two-dimensional
P-T-t
modellingposited on the Mesozoic Betic rifted margin. Astudy of the dynamics of extension and inversiondiscussion of the tectonic subsidence of thesein the eastern Betic Cordilleras, constrained bysequences is given by Peper and Cloetinghthese data sets.(1992~this volume).
Tectonic setting
The Betic Cordilleras can be subdivided in theInternal Zone (or Betic Zone) and the ExternalZone (Figs. 1 and 2). The Internal Zone in theeastern Betics consists of a stack of four tectoniccomplexes, from top to bottom (Fig. 2): theMalaguide complex, Alpujarride complex, Mul-ha& complex, and Veleta complex. These com-plexes are separated by subhorizontal, low-anglefaults or mylonite zones. A fifth complex, theAlmagride complex, which has a stratigraphic re-semblance to tectonic units in the External Zone(Simon, 1987), falls beyond the scope of the pre-sent study. The lowest three complexes experi-enced plurifacial metamorphism during thepolyphase Alpine tectonics (Gomez-Pugnaire andFernandez-Soler, 1987; Bakker et al., 1989; DeJong, 1990, 1991), whereas the Mallguide com-In the present study, we focus on the mod-elling of the thermo-tectonic evolution of theMulhactn complex and Alpujarride complex inthe Internal Zone. The
P-T-t
path of the Mul-ha& complex (Tables 1, 2; Fig. 3) displays themain elements of the lithospheric scale tectonics,which were involved in the evolution of the BeticCordilleras. Alpine HP-LT metamorphism re-sulted from subduction and was followed by iso-baric heating as a consequence of relaxation ofthe depressed isotherms. Later decompressionand cooling occurred, at the end of which a newsteady-state thermal and lithospheric configura-tion was established. During the early stages ofdecompression two penetrative ductile deforma-tion phases occurred (Dl and D2, Fig, 3), whichdocument significant westward thrusting of theAlpujarride complex on top of the MulhacCncomplex. Extensive reheating was the result oflatest Oligocene-Early Miocene extensional tec-
TABLE 1
P-T-r
data of the MulhacCn complex in the eastern Sierra de Los Filabres (after Bakker et al., 1989; De Jong, 1991; De Jong et al.,1992)
P-T-t
Ar2D4D3ArlCRblD2DlBA
P
(GPa)0.25-0.450.3 -0.40.4 -0.550.7 -1.00.9 -1.11.0 -1.11.0 -1.1T 0-Z)360 f 50450-525350-425360 f 50400-500500 f 50525-575475-525375-425300
t
(Ma)21-22ca. 2530-3165 f 10DescriptionModelled 4oAr/39Ar phengite cooling ages, inferredfrom 4oAr/39Ar age plateausPeak heatingLow-grade metamorphism. Starting heating + partialthermal resetting of 40Ar/39Ar cooling ages, inferredfrom phengite single grainOldest WAr/39Ar cooling ages in core of phengitesingle grainCooling trajectory87Rb/86Sr phengite cooling ageMedium-grade metamorphism, synkinematic decompression,main tectono-metamorphic phaseSynkinematic eclogitization/ glaucophane schist faciesStatic eclogitizationIncipient eclogitization

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