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Published by Ankit Jain

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Published by: Ankit Jain on Jul 31, 2011
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to:navigation, search  HVAC may also stand for High-voltage alternating current.See also:Glossary of HVAC
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HVAC systems use ventilationair ducts installed throughout a building that supply conditioned air to a room through rectangular or round outlet vents, called diffusers; andducts that remove air through return-air grilles
) refers to technology of indoor or automotive environmental comfort. HVAC system design is a major subdiscipline of mechanical engineering,based on the principles of  thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, and heat transfer .Refrigerationis sometimes added to the field's abbreviation as HVAC&R or HVACR, or ventilating is dropped as in HACR (such as the designation of HACR-ratedcircuit breakers).HVAC is important in the design of medium to large industrial and office buildings suchasskyscrapersand in marine environments such asaquariums,where safe andhealthy  buildingconditions are regulated with temperature and humidity, as well as "fresh air"from outdoors.
The invention of the components of HVAC systems went hand-in-hand with theindustrial revolution, and new methods of modernization, higher efficiency, and systemcontrol are constantly introduced by companies and inventors all over the world. Thethree central functions of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning are interrelated, providingthermal comfort,acceptableindoor air quality,within reasonable installation, operation, and maintenance costs. HVAC systems can provide ventilation, reduce air  infiltration, and maintain pressure relationships between spaces. How air is delivered to,and removed from spaces is known as room air distribution.
In modern buildings the design, installation, andcontrol systemsof these functions areintegrated into one or more HVAC systems. For very small buildings, contractorsnormally "size" and select HVAC systems and equipment. For larger buildings, buildingservices designers andengineers,such as mechanical,architectural, or  building services  engineers analyze, design, and specify the HVAC systems, and specialty mechanicalcontractors build and commission them. Building permits and code-complianceinspections of the installations are normally required for all sizes of buildings.
The HVAC industry is a worldwide enterprise, with career opportunities includingoperation and maintenance, system design and construction, equipment manufacturingand sales, and in education and research. The HVAC industry had been historicallyregulated by the manufacturers of HVAC equipment, but Regulating and Standardsorganizations such asHARDI,ASHRAE,SMACNA,ACCA, Uniform Mechanical Code, International Mechanical Code, andAMCAhave been established to support the industry and encourage high standards and achievement.Design of the HVAC system.The starting point in carrying out a heat estimate both for cooling and heating will dependon the ambient and inside conditions specified. However before taking up the heat loadcalculation, it is necessary to work out the fresh air requirement for each area in details,as pressurization is an important requirement.
[edit] Heating

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