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Magnetoconductivity of two-dimensional electrons on liquid helium: Experiments in the fluid phaseRatings: (0)|Views: 27|Likes: 1

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Magnetoconductivity of two-dimensional electrons on liquid helium:Experiments in the ﬂuid phase

M. J. Lea, P. Fozooni, A. Kristensen, P. J. Richardson, and K. Djerﬁ

Department of Physics, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, Surrey TW20 0EX, England

M. I. Dykman and C. Fang-Yen

Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824

A. Blackburn

Department of Electronics and Computer Science, University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ, England

Received 16 May 1996; revised manuscript received 25 November 1996

The magnetoconductivity

(

B

) of two-dimensional electrons on liquid helium was measured from 0.25 to1.3 K in the electron ﬂuid phase in magnetic ﬁelds up to 8 T. In low magnetic ﬁelds

B

,

(0)/

(

B

)

1

(

B

)

2

as in the Drude model, where

is the zero-ﬁeld mobility due to scattering by

4

He vapor atoms andripplons, even for

B

1. The values of mobility are in good agreement with previous measurements and withcalculations for a correlated electron ﬂuid. At higher ﬁelds,

(0)/

(

B

) deviates from the Drude model andbecomes density dependent due to many-electron effects. Only at the highest ﬁelds, or the lowest densities,does

(

B

) approach the theoretical single-particle magnetoconductivity. For both vapor-atom and ripplonscattering the results are in good agreement with a microscopic many-electron theory in which the diffusion of the cyclotron orbits is controlled by the internal ﬂuctuational electric ﬁelds. The density and temperaturedependence of these internal ﬁelds derived from the experiments are in excellent agreement with Monte Carlosimulations.

S0163-1829

97

06024-4

I. INTRODUCTION

Two-dimensional electrons in surface states above super-ﬂuid helium form the simplest conducting system knownexperimentally.

1

Below 1 K the electrons are in the quantumground state of the potential well formed by the helium sur-face and a vertical electric ﬁeld. However, they are free tomove horizontally with very high mobilities

, limited byscattering from

4

He vapor atoms and by the thermal surfacevibrations, or ripplons. For vapor atoms the scattering maybe regarded as almost ideal, short-range, and quasielasticwhile ripplon scattering is also well understood. At the elec-tron densities which are stable on bulk helium,

n

2

10

13

m

2

, the electrons in the ﬂuid phase are dilute

typi-cal separation 1

m

, classical, and nondegenerate. How-ever, the electrons are strongly interacting via long-rangeCoulomb forces, with a macroscopic screening length deter-mined by the distance to underlying metallic electrodes

100

m in these experiments.

In most experiments, theplasma parameter

the ratio of the characteristic unscreenedCoulomb energy to the kinetic energy

,

e

2

(

n

)

1/2

/4

0

kT

1, while for

127

low

T

the sys-tem forms a two-dimensional

2D

electron crystal.

2

Giventhe experimental ﬂexibility and control over the density, tem-perature, mobility, and magnetic ﬁeld, this is an ideal systemfor investigating the inﬂuence of electron-electron interac-tions on fundamental transport properties.In particular, recent data clearly indicates that electron-electron interactions, and the internal electric ﬁelds whichthey produce, have a dramatic inﬂuence on themagnetoresistivity

3

and magnetoconductivity

4,5

in this sys-tem. A single-particle approach will not sufﬁce. Experimen-tally, the low ﬁeld magnetoconductivity and magnetoresistiv-ity follow the simple Drude model over a very wide range of conditions, even for

B

c

500, well in the range of classically strong magnetic ﬁelds

c

eB

/

m

is the cyclo-tron frequency

. This is rather surprising, given that Landaulevel quantization should occur with energy levels at (

N

0.5)

c

for

B

1. The energy density of states willchange dramatically with magnetic ﬁeld and would be ex-pected to enhance the elastic scattering rate, depending onthe width of the Landau levels. For independent electrons,the only contribution to this width is the collision broaden-ing, which can be found from the self-consistent Bornapproximation

6

SCBA

or from the method of moments

7

which give similar results. This approach works well for lowmobility samples,

8

though with some residual quantitativediscrepancies, but at higher mobilities (20

2000 m

2

/V s), the narrower collision width becomes lessthan the energy spread given by the product of the many-electron internal force

e

E

f

and characteristic lengths such asthe thermal de Broglie wavelength and the quantum mag-netic length. This essentially smears out the density of statesand leads back to the Drude model for magnetic ﬁelds lessthan some

onset ﬁeld B

0

, which is typically 0.5 T for elec-trons on helium. For

B

B

0

,

xx

becomes density dependentand 1/

xx

is then directly proportional to the internal electricﬁeld strength. At higher ﬁelds the collision width of the Lan-dau levels increases again and the independent electrontheory

SCBA

does become valid. Previous measurementsand interpretations of the magnetoconductivity only consid-ered single-particle theories.

9

The many-electron transporteffects have been studied theoretically in the extreme quan-tum limit of strong magnetic ﬁeld

10

and interesting density-

PHYSICAL REVIEW B 15 JUNE 1997-IIVOLUME 55, NUMBER 24550163-1829/97/55

24

/16280

13

/$10.00 16 280 © 1997 The American Physical Society

dependent effects were observed in cyclotron resonance.

11

Recently, the damping of edge magnetoplasmons has beenused to determine the magnetoconductivity

xx

,

12

both inthe vapor-atom and ripplon scattering regimes, in goodagreement with the direct measurements reportedpreviously

3,4

and in this paper and conﬁrming the inﬂuenceof many-electron effects.Recently a comprehensive many-electron theory of trans-port phenomena in strongly correlated classical and semi-classical systems has been developed.

13

In parallel with thisincreased theoretical understanding we have also developedthe experimental techniques based on high-precision Corbinoelectrodes, fabricated using modern lithographic techniques.These new electrodes give improved experimental resolu-tion.This paper describes measurements of

xx

from 0.25 to1.3 K in the 2D electron ﬂuid phase, at ﬁelds up to 8 T, inboth the vapor-atom and ripplon scattering regimes. The pa-per is organized as follows. In Sec. II we give an account of the basic theoretical concepts underlying many-electronmagnetoconductivity within the framework of the Einsteindiffusion relation. In Sec. III we describe the experimentalcell, the Corbino electrodes, and the experimental proce-dures. In Sec. IV we give the experimental results and ana-lyze them in terms of the internal electric ﬁelds in the 2Dsystem while in Sec. V we draw the main conclusions andthe Appendix gives some of the theoretical expressions used.

II. MAGNETOCONDUCTIVITYA. Zero-ﬁeld mobility

The zero-ﬁeld mobility

and the zero-ﬁeld conductivity

0

ne

in the 2D electron ﬂuid have been measured bymany authors using rectangular electrodes

the originalSommer-Tanner technique

14

, circular Corbinoelectrodes,

15,16

the plasma linewidth,

17

or a resonant cavity atradio frequencies.

18

The most detailed measurements in zeroﬁeld are those of Mehrotra

et al.

19

below 1 K, using frequen-cies up to 2 MHz and by Stan and Dahm.

20

The mobility isstrongly temperature dependent and varies from 1 m

2

/V s just below the

point to over 2000 m

2

/V s at 0.1 K

depend-ing on the density

. Within the single-particle approximation,the zero-ﬁeld mobility has been calculated for vapor-atomand ripplon scattering by Saitoh,

21

using the electron-ripploninteraction

22

which depends strongly on the perpendicularelectric pressing ﬁeld

E

. However, Buntar’

et al.

18

pointedout that the electron-electron correlation time for

n

10

12

m

2

is less than the electron-ripplon relaxation time.For an energy dependent interaction

such as with ripplons,but not vapor atoms

this leads to a different average in theexpression for

which can be a factor of 2 smaller than thesingle-particle result

in Ref. 18 the effect was considered interms of occasional electron-electron collisions as if the elec-tron system were a weakly nonideal plasma

. For a stronglycorrelated classical electron system the zero magnetic ﬁeldscattering rate

0

1

is shown in the Appendix to be of theform

0

1

e

2

E

2

4

s

1

E

1

E

E

22

E

2

,

1

where

s

is the surface tension and

E

1

and

E

2

are explicitintegrals which are functions of the temperature

T

and thevertical pressing ﬁeld

E

as given in the Appendix. Thisexpression is valid for

p

/

kT

1 where

p

(

e

2

n

3/2

/2

0

m

)

1/2

is the characteristic frequency of short-wavelength 2D plasmons. However, the numerical values forthe mobility given by Eq.

1

are very close to those fromSaitoh’s expressions

21

and also the calculations done byMehrotra

et al.

19

For higher densities the motion of an elec-tron in the ﬁeld of other electrons is no longer classical. Theanalysis of this case is beyond the scope of the present paper.

B. Conductivity as diffusion: The Einstein relation

The Drude model gives the magnetoconductivity of a 2Delectron system

2DES

by assuming independent electronsin classical orbits in a magnetic ﬁeld and a ﬁeld-independentscattering time. The tensor components of the magnetocon-ductivity

and magnetoresistivity

are as follows

the signsof the components given are positive for negative charges,putting

e

e

:

xx

0

1

2

B

2

,

yx

B

xx

,

2a

xx

0

,

xy

B

/

ne

.

2b

These simple results act as benchmarks for our experimentsto measure

xx

. A useful parameter to plot experimentally isthe ratio

ne

/

which for the Drude model at

B

1 be-comes

ne

B

B

2

.

3

Conductivity in a 2D electron ﬂuid is essentially a diffu-sion process. The Einstein relation between mobility and thediffusion constant for a system obeying Maxwell-Boltzmannstatistics gives

xx

ne

2

kT L

2

B

,

4

where

L

is the diffusion length and

B

1

is the scattering ratein a ﬁeld. In zero magnetic ﬁeld, putting 2

L

2

equal to thesquared mean free path reproduces

0

ne

. In a magneticﬁeld the diffusion length is given by

L

2

R

c

2

/2, where

R

c

(2

mkT

)

1/2

/

eB

is the classical cyclotron radius, for

c

/

kT

1, while for

c

/

kT

1, only the lowest Landaulevel is occupied and

L

2

l

2

/2 where

l

(

/

eB

)

1/2

is themagnetic length. The various conductivity models corre-spond to selecting the value of

L

and the scattering rate,

23

asshown in Table I. The Einstein model is, of course, equiva-lent to the orbit-center migration theory of Kubo

et al.

24

andAndo

et al.

6

The Drude model, for

B

1, is given by classical cyclo-tron orbits and

B

0

, which leads to

ne

/

B

2

as shownin Table I. But the Drude model neglects the quantization of electron orbits into Landau levels, which changes the scat-tering rate via the density of states. In the self-consistentBorn approximation

SCBA

for

-function scatterers, as dis-cussed by Ando

et al.

6

for degenerate electrons, the Landau

55 16 281MAGNETOCONDUCTIVITY OF TWO-DIMENSIONAL . . .

levels are collision broadened to a width

s

/

B

. Hencethe scattering rate is enhanced by a factor

c

/

s

as theelectron states from an energy range

c

are concentratedinto

s

. For a semielliptical density of states

6

at each Lan-dau level this leads to the self-consistent result 1/

B

(2

B

/

)

1/2

/

0

. An expression for the resultant magneto-conductivity for a nondegenerate 2D electron gas has beengiven by van der Heijden

et al.

25

The functional dependencesof

ne

/

are given by the Einstein relation as shown inTable I. Scheuzger

et al.

26

derived the corresponding expres-sions for Gaussian density of states, with slightly differentprefactors

the factor 2/

becomes 1/2

. The original SCBAtheory was only valid for

xx

/

yx

1 but it has been ex-tended to all values of this ratio,

27

keeping

c

B

1, andgave an excellent ﬁt to data on edge-mode propagation forelectrons on helium at temperatures above 1.7 K at very highmagnetic ﬁelds

up to 22 T

, where the vapor-atom scatteringis very strong.

25

It is our contention that as the mobilityincreases, electron-electron interactions become increasinglyimportant.The corresponding SCBA theory for the magnetoconduc-tivity for ripplon scattering in the 2D electron ﬂuid has beengiven by Saitoh

28

for

c

/

kT

1, who also calculated

xx

(

B

) for the 2D solid phase.

C. Many-electron effects

In the relatively dilute 2DES on helium, there is negli-gible wave function overlap and the force on an individualelectron can be expressed in terms of a local ﬂuctuating elec-tric ﬁeld

E

f

. The distribution of

E

f

for a classical normalliquid has been obtained in several ways. Since ﬂuctuationsin the system are thermal, and the ﬁeld arises because of theelectron-electron interactions, it is convenient to write themean-square ﬁeld in the form

E

f

2

F

2

mkT

p

2

e

2

F

kTn

3/2

4

¯

0

F

E

02

,

5

where

p

(

e

2

n

3/2

/2

0

m

)

1/2

is the 2D plasma frequencywith a wave vector

q

n

1/2

and

¯

1.0286. The force drivingan electron can be calculated for large

low

T

in the 2Dcrystal phase

29

and arises because of the displacement of theelectrons from the lattice sites

R

i

. In the harmonic approxi-mation it is linear in the displacement, has a Gaussian distri-bution, and

F

(

)

8.91, independent of

. In the most in-teresting range of the normal electron liquid and of themelting transition the function

F

(

) has been obtained fromMonte Carlo simulations in Ref. 30 and is plotted in Fig. 1.The variation of

F

is surprisingly small in this range, varyingfrom 9.1 at

200 to 9.5 for

20 although the structureof the system changes dramatically from a good crystal to aliquid whose correlations decay over a few electron spacings.Previous analyses and calculations of the many-electronmagnetoconductivity in the ﬂuid phase invoked short-rangeorder

31

and used the value

F

8.91.The effects of these internal ﬁelds on the magnetotrans-port can be considered in several ways. The basic ideas canbe simply understood in terms of cyclotron orbit diffusion.The scattering rate for elastic scattering depends on the elec-tron density of states or smearing of the Landau levels. In thesingle-particle SCBA this smearing is the Landau level col-lision width

s

/

. But for a ﬂuctuating many-electronﬁeld of magnitude

E

f

, there are other characteristic energies.For

c

/

kT

1, the characteristic ‘‘size’’ of the electron isthe thermal de Broglie wavelength

T

/

2

mkT

. Hencethere is a quantum uncertainty of the kinetic energy of theelectron wave packet

K

T

eE

f

due to the ﬂuctuating in-ternal ﬁelds. For

K

c

, which corresponds to

p

c

,or

B

0.23 T for

n

10

12

m

2

, Landau level quantization issmeared out and the orbit diffusion and magnetoconductivityare essentially the same as in the Drude formalism. This isalso the case for

c

eE

f

R

c

c

, where

c

is the energyvariation across a cyclotron orbit radius

R

c

. The condition

c

c

deﬁnes a characteristic magnetic ﬁeld

B

0

9.69

10

6

F

1/4

n

3/8

T

1/2

T which is the onset ﬁeld for mag-netoresistance and for deviations from Drude-like magneto-conductivity, and lies between 0.2 and 1 T in these experi-

FIG. 1. The scaled mean square ﬁeld

F

(

) from Monte Carlocalculations. The asymptotic value of

F

8.91 for a harmonic clas-sical Wigner crystal is shown dashed. Inset: the ﬁeld componentdistribution.TABLE I. 2D magnetoconductivity for short-range scattering,using the Einstein relation, for

c

B

1.

(

ne

2

/

kT

)(

L

2

/

B

);

R

c

(2

mkT

)

1/2

/

eB

;

l

(

/

eB

)

1/2

.Model

L

2

0

B

ne

Drude-classical

R

c

2

1

B

2

Drude-quantum

l

2

1

BT

Single electronLandau levelsClassical orbits

R

c

2

(

B

)

1/2

B

3/2

1/2

Single electronLandau levelsQuantum orbits

l

2

(

B

)

1/2

TB

1/2

1/2

Many-electronLandau levelsClassical orbits

B

B

0

R

c

2

c

/

c

c

eE

f

R

c

B

02

B

04

2

m

3

kT

E

f

2

2

e

2

Many-electronLandau levelsQuantum orbits

l

2

c

/

q

q

eE

f

l

4

B

02

(

c

/

kT

)

1/2

16 282 55M. J. LEA

et al.

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