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SE Unit IV 2marks

SE Unit IV 2marks

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Published by Praveen Raj

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Published by: Praveen Raj on Aug 02, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Testing is a process of executing a program with the intent of finding of an error.
2.When the test case said to be good?
A good test case is one that has a high probability of finding an as yetundiscovered error.
3.What are the steps of testing?
Software is tested from two different perspectives.i)Internal program logic is exercised using “white-box” test case designtechniques.ii)Software requirements are exercised using “Black-box” test casedesign techniques.
2.Define Component and System testing.Component testing:
In Component testing individual components are tested. It is the responsibility of component developer to carry out this kind of testing. These tests are derivedform developer’s experience.
System testing:
In System testing the testing of group of components integrated to create a systemor sub-system is done. It is the
responsibility of an independent testing team tocarry out this kind of testing. These tests are based on a system specification.(Or) 
What are the two levels of testing?a.Component testing
Individual components are tested. Tests are derived fromdeveloper’s experience.
b.System Testing
The groups of components are integrated to create a systemor sub-system is done. These tests are based on the systemspecification.
Define software testing?
Software testing is a critical element of software quality assurance andrepresents the ultimate review of specification, design, and coding.
6. What are the objectives of testing?
c.Testing is a process of executing a program with the intend of finding anerror.
d.A good test case is one that has high probability of finding an undiscoverederror.e.A successful test is one that uncovers as an-yet undiscovered error.
What are the testing principles the software engineer must apply whileperforming the software testing?
i.All tests should be traceable to customer requirements.ii.Tests should be planned long before testing begins.iii.The pareto principle can be applied to software testing-80% of allerrors uncovered during testing will likely be traceable to 20% of all program modules.iv.Testing should begin “in the small” and progress toward testing “inthe large”.v.Exhaustive testing is not possible.vi.To be most effective, an independent third party should conducttesting.
8.What are the various testing activities?
a.Test planning b.Test case designc.Test executiond.Data collectione.Effective evaluation
9.Write short note on black box testing.
The black box testing is also called as behavioral testing. This methodfully focus on the functional requirements of the software. Tests are derived thatfully exercise all functional requirements.
10.What is equivalence partitioning?
Equivalence partitioning is a black box technique that divides the inputdomain into classes of data. From this data test cases can be derived. Equivalenceclass represents a set of valid or invalid states for input conditions.
11.What is a boundary value analysis?
A boundary value analysis is a testing technique in which the elements atthe edge of the domain are selected and tested. It is a test case design techniquethat complements equivalence partitioning technique. Here instead of focusing oninput conditions only, the test cases are derived from the output domain.
12.What are the reasons behind to perform white box testing?
There are three main reasons behind performing the white box testing.i. Programmers may have some incorrect assumptions while designingor implementing some functions. Due to this there are chances of havinglogical errors in the program. To detect and correct such logical errors procedural details need to be examined.
ii.Certain assumptions on flow of control and data may lead programmer to make design errors. To uncover the errors on logical path, white boxtesting is must.iii.There may be certain typographical errors that remain undetected evenafter syntax and type checking mechanisms. Such errors can beuncovered during white box testing.
13.What is cyclomatic complexity?
Cyclomatic complexity is software metric that gives the quantitativemeasure of logical complexity of the program.The Cyclomatic complexity defines the number of independent paths inthe basis set of the program that provides the upper bound for the number of teststhat must be conducted to ensure that all the statements have been executed atleast once.
14.How to compute the cyclomatic complexity?
The cyclomatic complexity can be computed by any one of the followingways.1.The numbers of regions of the flow graph correspond tothe cyclomatic complexity.2.Cyclomatic complexity, V(G),for the flow graph, G, isdefined as:V(G)=E-N+2,E -- number of flow graph edges, N -- number of flow graph nodes3.V(G)=P+1Where P is the number of predicate nodes contained in theflow graph.
15.Distinguish between verification and validation.
Verification refers to the set of activities that ensure that softwarecorrectly implements a specific function.
Validation refers to a different set of activities that ensure that thesoftware that has been built is traceable to the customer requirements.According to Boehm,
Verification:” Are we building the product right?”
Validation:” Are we building the right product?”
16.What are the various testing strategies for conventional software?
a.Unit testing b.Integration testing.c.Validation testing.d.System testing.
17.Write about drivers and stubs.
Drivers and stub software need to be developed to test incompatible software.

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