Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences
Caspian J. Env. Sci. 2005, Vol. 3, No.1, pp. 1~8©Copyright by The University of Guilan, Printed in I.R. Iran
The Development of Botanical Products with Special Reference toSeri-Ecosystem
R. N. Singh* and B. Saratchandra
Central Silk Board, B. T. M. Layout, Madiwala, Bangalore 560 068, India.
Corresponding Author’s E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The search for alternative ways of controlling sericultural pests has led to the investigation of plantsources for naturally occurring compounds which may have Insect growth regulatory, feeding deterrency,repellency and confusantcy characteristics. More than 2000 species of the families Asteraceae, Fabaceaeand Euphorbiaceae are known that possess some insecticidal activity. Plants with insecticidal propertiesfound in India are reported. But to use them it is necessary to conduct an analysis of the risks to theenvironment and to human health. Various parts of rotenone, pyrethrum, sabadilla, ryania and neem areoften used to minimize pest population. Recently several other plants viz. Pongamia, Indian privet,Adathoda, Chrysanthemum, Turmeric, Onion, Garlic, Tobacco, Basili, Custard apple, Ginger and someother plants have been screened and their efficacy has been tested. The efficacy of leaf extracts of basil(
), bitter leaf (
), lemon grass (
was investigated for its insecticidal and ovicidal activity against coleopteran bruchids.Several citrus limonoids and limonin derivatives have been found to be insect antifeedants. Among all theplant originated insecticides, neem (
) is known to contain diverse array ofbiologically active principles of which azadirachtin
(a tetranortriterpenoid) is the best known derivativeswhich is used in sericulture to control various pests. Botanical insecticides are prepared in the form of thecrude plant material, extracts or resins. This paper includes the plants that have been reported to beinsecticidal against the pests, which visit seri-ecosystem and damage the silkworm and its host plants.
: Botanical insecticides, Pest control, feeding deterrent and repellent
Increasing reliance on conventionalpesticides to combat intricate pest problemsin sericulture and human health during thepast four decades paid rich dividends interms of enhanced productivity and supper-ssion of diseases but proved extremely riskyto environment and mankind. Repeatedapplication of synthetic organic insecticidesresulted into pest resistance and out break.Most insecticidal compound falls within fourmain classes, the organochlorines, organoph-osphates, the carbamates and pyrethroids.Out of these the major classes in use todayare organophosphates and carbamates. Thereare problems of pesticides resistance andnegative impacts on non-target organismsincluding man and the environment (Singh
. 2000, 2004). Many environmental proble-ms such as development of resistance inpests to pesticides, resurgence of target andnon-target pests, destruction of beneficialorganisms and pesticides residue in hostplants may be reduced after proper use of theactive ingredients present in the plants(Singh and Saratchandra, 2002). The use oforganochlorine insecticides has been bannedin developed countries and the alternativemethods of insect pest control are beinginvestigated (Klein and Dunkel, 2003).Botanicals are the most promising source andunder extensive trails for their biologicalactivity against various sericultural pests.Therefore, this vast wealth of plants that arerich sources of bioactive compounds need tobe documented in detail.
Public awareness and resulting environm
ental protection agencies (EPA) rulings haveled to the removal of some chlorinated,organophosphorus and carbamate insectici
des from the market. It is because of growingconcern for clear environmental and insectpopulations that are resistant to conventionalchemicals. During the last 15 years interest inbotanical insecticides has increased to lookfor substitutions for synthetic insecticides
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