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Origin of Universities and Degree Honours

Origin of Universities and Degree Honours

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Published by Ifechukwu U. Ibeme
The academic vestments and offices (e.g. chancellor, dean, rector, provost) of today still bear semblance to cathedral vestments and offices, despite the secularization of the academia. All those who prefix "Professor" and "Doctor" to their names, owe such honorific ultimately to the Church which originated them. The records in historical literature and encyclopaedias confirm these facts.
The academic vestments and offices (e.g. chancellor, dean, rector, provost) of today still bear semblance to cathedral vestments and offices, despite the secularization of the academia. All those who prefix "Professor" and "Doctor" to their names, owe such honorific ultimately to the Church which originated them. The records in historical literature and encyclopaedias confirm these facts.

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Published by: Ifechukwu U. Ibeme on Aug 08, 2011
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ORIGIN OF UNIVERSITIES AND DEGREE HONOURS
 by Venerable Dr Ifechukwu U. Ibeme Websites: http://www.scribd.com/ifeogo
and
The Apostles believed in focused and thorough biblical studies for ministerial excellence (Act_6:4; Act_18:4!8; Ti_:1"#$ so the %athedrals and &onasteries had al'as had schools (
 Scholae Monasticae
# since the earliest times$ for their diocesan priests and mon)s to be educated in
ecclesiastical studies
(theolog$
 
liturg$ canon la'$ logic$ homiletics$ administration and accounting#* +rom the 11
th
centurA,$ these cathedral and monastic schools evolved into the
 Studia Generalia
 (schools for general studies# or
Universitas Magistrorum et  Scholarium
 (guild-corporation of teachers and scholars#* These scholars.!cum!teachers. unions for general studies devoted themselves to the
acquisition and adancement
 of intellectual s)ills and /encclopaedic0 (all!round# )no'ledge* The %hurch protected
 Studia
 scholars 'ith the same legal privileges accorded to the clerg* The first of these niversities started at 2ologna (3tal# in 188 A,* 5thers  'ere aris (+rance# 11" A,$ 5xford (7ngland# 116 A,$ %ambridge (7ngland# 19  A,* The
 Studia
 
or
Universitas
 'ere devoted to the liberation of human intellectual capacities for encclopaedic analtical )no'ledge through the
!iberal "rts #
the Trivium for
 communicatie $umanistic %tudies
and the uadrivium for
calculatie &ature %tudies'
$ and acuisition of vocational s)ills through the
Utilitarian "rts #
for the
 (rofessions'
*
)he !iberal "rts
 (intellectuallliberating studies# 'hich 'ere mainl humanistic-humanising studies 'ere non!vocational general studies for intellectual-personal development to liberate the mind 'ith the ob<ective critical capacit to
learn, reason and COMMUNICATE encyclopaedic no!ledge and ideas
$ and 'ith the ob<ective analtical capacit to
CA"CU"ATE, evaluate and articulate every ind o# in#ormation and data
* =ith such ob<ective intellectual capacities$ the mind could accumulate$ anal>e$ communicate and advance )no'ledge and ideas applicable to an field of stud in a dispassionate and efficient manner*
)he Utilitarian "rts
 (vocational or technical s)ills# 'ere studied for acuisition of specific professional s)ills* ,espite informal acculturation$ the non!liberated and formall uneducated mind is not onl ignorant and illiterate in )no'ledge but is also sub<ective and illogical in intellectual analsis* ?erein lathe purpose and profit of the
!iberal "rts
 offered in the
 Studia
 or
Universitas
*The
 Studia
 
or
Universitas
 'ere given the charter of international accreditation  b the %hurch and organised as academic guilds
for the adancement of knowledge
* @ater some temporal authorities also began to give local special recognition* The
 Studia
 
or
Universitas
 a'arded /degree0 academic honours to
1
 
those 'ho attained the all!round )no'ledge of the @iberal Arts (i*e* advanced encclopaedic humanities# 'hich certified them as internationall rated all!round teachers of higher learning* ,egrees appl to encclopaedic general learning 'hile diplomas appl to monopedic limited learning* This is 'huniversities reuire eneral Btudies in @iberal Arts for degree programmes 'hile normal seminaries (for teacher training#$ monotechnics and poltechnics (for technical and vocational training# do not reuire eneral Btudies for diploma programmes* The hierarch of degrees a'arded 'ere for masterin the seven
!iberal "rts
 and the higher professional studies or utilitarian specialties as follo's:
2achelor of Arts (i*e* baccalaureate after Crs in the @327DA@ ADTB (liberating-reforming the mind# +5D %5&&E3%AT35E AE, 5DAT35E called the Trivium:
grammar
 'ith literature!histor$
logic
 'ith dialectic$ and
rhetoric
 'ith orator!philosoph#;
&aster of Arts (on completion of further 4rs in the @327DA@ ADTB (liberating-reforming the mind# +5D %A@%@AT35E AE, &7EBDAT35E called the uadrivium:
arithmetic
$
geometry 
$
astronomy*
and %hurch
music
#;
&asters and ,octorate ( to 1rs in an of the higher utilitarian or professional faculties:
theology 
$ canon!civil
law 
 and
medicine
* 5ther modern faculties li)e architecture$ engineering$ pscholog$ agriculture$ sciences$ sociolog$ economics$ politics$ pharmac$ and so on$ came along 'ith time#*
rofessors 'ere either appointed and paid b the %hurch or sometimes elected and paid b the students depending on the circumstances that led to the formation of each universit*
2achelor of Arts 'as seen as intermediate or preparator degree in general )no'ledge and intellectual s)ill for liberal thin)ing and humanistic elouence 2achelor of Arts is a'arded b the +acult rofessors 'ithout involving the ,iocesan %hancellorFs 2oard and so bachelors 'ere not usuall ualified to be international
encyclopaedic teachers
 as masters$ doctors or professors*
There 'ere other schools and institutions li)e Becular mnasia$ Bpecialised  Academies$ rofessional %olleges and Deligious Beminaries$ for advancing special interest courses$ advanced apprenticeship training and advanced religious studies* These did not offer the higher encclopaedic humanistic education of the
seen !iberal "rts
 mandator in the 
niversity Studia
$ and so did not ualif to a'ard degree honours* At the best their certificates could be said to be diplomas*
&odern da universities and degree a'arding colleges still pa lip service to some
 basic mind+liberalising encyclopaedic knowledge
 through the mandator
,eneral %tudies
 covering 2asic @ibrar Bcience (se of the @ibrar#$ rammar (se of 7nglish#$ 2asic eneral
$umanities
$ 2asic
&atural
 Bciences and 2asic
%ocial
 Bciences* This basic general )no'ledge reuirement distinguishes a degree from a diploma and distinguishes a universitfrom other utilitarian academies and vocational tertiar institutions*
2

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