The temperature at which (theoretically) there is no molecular/atomic motion. (-273°C or -460°F). Absolute zero is the lowest possibly attainable temperature.
The process in which incident radiant energy is retained by a substance.
Latin - castle
Mid-level clouds (bases generally 2000 - 8000m), of which at least a fraction of their upper parts show cumulus-type development. These clouds are often taller than they are wide, giving them a turret-shaped appearance. AcCas clouds are a sign of instability aloft, and may precede the rapid development of thunderstorms.
A cloud which is dependent on a larger cloud system for development and continuance. Roll clouds, shelf clouds and wall clouds are examples of accessory clouds.
The growth of a precipitation particle by the collision of ice crystals or snow-flakes with supercooled liquid droplets that freeze upon impact.
A thermodynamic process in which no heat is transferred to the surrounding air.In an adiabatic process, compression of an air parcel results in an increase in temperature, while expansion results in a decrease in temperature.
Generally, a thunderstorm not associated with a front or other type of synoptic-scale forcing mechanism. Air mass thunderstorms typically are associated with warm, humid air in the summer months; they develop during the afternoon in response to solar insolation and dissipate rather quickly after sunset. Air mass thunderstorms are generally less likely to be severe than other types of thunderstorms, but they are still capable of producing downbursts, brief heavy rain, and (in extreme cases) hail over 2cm in diameter. Since all thunderstorms are associated with some type of forcing mechanism, synoptic-scale or otherwise, the existence of true air-mass thunderstorms is debatable. Therefore the term is somewhat controversial and should be used with discretion.
A measure of the mass of air above a given point. Usually expressed in millibars (mb) or hectopascals (hPa). Also known as atmospheric or barometric pressure (pressure measured by a barometer).
A middle level cloud with vertical development that forms from altocumulus clouds. It is composed primarily of ice crystals in its higher portions and characterised by its turrets, protuberances or crenulated tops.
Mid-level cloud composed of water droplets and ice crystals. Usually gives the sun a watery or dimly visible appearance.
A local wind that flows up the side of valleys due to increased heating along the valley walls. Often the anabatic wind results in cumulus clouds along the ridges either side of the valley. See also Katabatic winds.
The departure of an element from its long-term average for the location concerned. For example, if the average maximum temperature for
Melbourne in June is 14 degrees and on one particular day the temperature
only reaches 10 degrees, than the anomaly for that day is -4.
A large scale atmospheric circulation system in which the winds rotate anti clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere (clockwise in Northern Hemisphere). Anticyclones are areas of high atmospheric pressure and are generally associated with light winds and stable weather conditions. Interchangeable with High pressure system.
Rotation in the opposite sense as the Earth's rotation, i.e., anticlockwise in