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Published by: Sravan Yadav on Aug 29, 2011
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Availability and use of hepatitis B vaccine in laboratory and nursingschools in
the United States.
Roush SW,Hadler SC,Shapiro CN,Schatz GC.
Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333.
Hepatitis B is a well-documented occupational hazard for health care workers, including bothlaboratory and nursing personnel. Since the development of effective hepatitis B vaccines, theImmunization Practices Advisory Committee (ACIP) has recommended that health care workersreceive the vaccine. In this study, 78 laboratory training programs and 83 nursing trainingprograms were surveyed regarding availability and usage of hepatitis B vaccine. The hepatitis Bvaccine was made available to students in 81 percent of the laboratory programs and 23percent of the nursing programs. In those programs making the vaccine available, only 59percent of the laboratory programs and 5 percent of the nursing programs reported a high(greater than 75 percent) use by students. Concern about cost and payment for the vaccine wasthe most common reason (80 percent) noted by laboratory schools that did not have hepatitis Bvaccination programs for students. Of the nursing schools that did not have vaccine programs,58 percent had not yet considered a program. At laboratory schools with vaccination programs,who paid for the vaccine (hospital or school versus student) was among the most importantdeterminants for vaccine usage by students. These findings point out that some laboratoryschools and many nursing schools have not applied the ACIP recommendations to their ownprograms. Educational efforts and creative payment plans for the vaccine are needed toincrease the availability and use of hepatitis B vaccine among laboratory and nursing students.PMID:
Free PMC Article
Hepatitis B and hepatitis B vaccine requirements in schools of 
nursing in the United States: a national survey.
Goetz A,Yu VL.
Veterans Administration Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15240.
To ascertain use of the hepatitis B vaccine and occurrence of hepatitis B infection in nursingstudents, 1152 U.S. nursing schools were surveyed; 54.3% responded. The vaccine wasrequired by 4.2% and recommended by 7.7%. Baccalaureate programs tended to require thevaccine more than the associate degree or diploma programs (p = 0.062). The occurrence of exposure of nursing students to blood and body fluids in the past 5 years was reported by89.7%. Students in the diploma program had significantly more exposures (98.6%) than those inthe associate degree (92.8%) and baccalaureate programs (82.7%; p less than 0.0005). At leastone case of hepatitis B in the past 5 years was reported by 6.8%. Development of positiveserologic markers in students after exposure to blood was reported by 7.1%. Seropositivitytended to occur in the Southeast and West (p = 0.035) and in cities with a relatively higher incidence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (p = 0.075). Diploma programs were
significantly more likely to institute appropriate follow-up for students after exposure to blood of patients who were known or unknown carriers of hepatitis B virus (p less than 0.0001). For students exposed to blood of patients whose hepatitis B status was unknown and patients whowere known hepatitis B carriers, 19.2% and 8.9%, respectively, reported they performed nofollow-up whatsoever. U.S. nursing students are inadequately protected against hepatitis B.Nursing school administrators and faculty should be educated on the risks of hepatitis Binfection and the indications and use of the hepatitis B vaccine.PMID:
J Adv Nurs.1992 Apr;17(4):507-13.
Preferred sources of information on AIDS among high schoolstudents from selected schools in Zimbabwe.
Ndlovu RJ,Sihlangu RH.
Department of Nursing Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Zimbabwe.
Following various national HIV and AIDS awareness campaign activities under the auspices of theMinistries of Health and Education, Zimbabwe, an AIDS KABP survey was undertaken. The study samplecomprised 478 high school students randomly selected and stratified to represent sex and Forms 1through to 6. The study instrument was a 31-item questionnaire designed to assess the students'knowledge, attitudes, practices and sources of information in relation to HIVsyndrome. This report reviewsonly that part of the study dealing with sources of information. Newspapers, television, radio andmagazine were the most frequently cited sources of first information. Classmates were cited by 20% toover 30% of respondents as first sources of information. Authority figures like health workers, parents,teachers, the Church did not emerge as significant sources of first information. Doctors were identified asthe most preferred source of information in future. Sources of first information were related to age, formlevel, sex and location of school attended. There were notable differences between boarding schoolrespondents and day scholars. No regional differences were noted.478 students from 4 sub-urban coeducational schools from Mashonaland region and Matabelelandregion, Zimbabwe, were surveyed on their knowledge, attitudes, and behavior related to AIDs in October-December, 1990. The sample was randomly selected and stratified by sex and grade level. Informationwas obtained on their first source of sources of information on HIV infection and AIDs, the mostinformative source, and the most preferred source. A national awareness campaign, begun in 1987,informed the general population and distributed 3 booklets on HIV infection and AIDs to high schoolstudents. Differences were reflected by sex, grade level, school location, and geographical region in theuse of newspaper, television, and booklets. The findings were that health care providers were of minimalsignificance in providing information, although 20% cited these professions as preferred sources of information. 49% of the students cited the newspaper as their first source of information. Followingnewspapers in order of preference were television, radio, and magazines which were identified as the firstsource by 36-45% of the students. Only 25% gave booklets as the first source of information. 20% citedclassmates as the first source of information. First sources may not always be the most informative.Higher grade levels more frequently cited newspapers as their first source, but television was the mostfrequently cited as the first source in grades 1-3. Higher grade levels (5-6) also cited classmates as an
important first source. Girls tended to cite as first sources classmates and radio, while boys citednewspapers and magazines. Sources of first information followed a school location pattern andsocioeconomic setting. Classmates were the higher first source in the boarding school, while televisionand magazines had the lowest scores in the school with mostly low income families. Magazines wereconsidered the most informative source for 17% and newspapers and magazines for 32%. Nurses andrelatives were considered the least informative. Only 12.2 cited parents as the first source and only 3%cited them as a good source. 10% preferred booklets. Several proposals for thenursing practice aregiven. The rural population and appropriate networks needs to be examined
Factual knowledge about AIDS and dating practices among highschool students
from selected schools.
Nyachuru-Sihlangu RH,Ndlovu J.
Department of Nursing Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Zimbabwe, Avondale,Harare.
Following various educational strategies by governmental and non-governmental organisations
to educate youths and school teachers about HIV infection and prevention, this KABP survey was one attempt to evaluate the results. The study sample of 478 high school students wasdrawn from four randomly selected schools in Mashonaland and Matabeleland including highand low density, government and mission co-educational schools. The sample was randomly selected and stratified to represent sex and grade level. The KABP self administered questionnaire was used. The paper analyses the relationship between the knowledge and dating patterns. Generally, respondents demonstrated a 50pc to 80pc accuracy of factual knowledge. Of the 66pc Forms I through IV pupils who dated, 30pc preferred only sexually involved relationships and a small number considered the possibility of HIV/AIDS infection. Atheoretically based tripartite coalition involving the school, the family health care services for education, guidance and support to promote responsible behaviour throughout childhood wassuggested.Educating at risk populations about HIV transmission in hopes of encouraging the adoption of low-risk behavior is one of the few options presently available to potentially reduce the rate of HIV infection and its prevalence. To communicate with and educate youths, one must first understand the social and sexuality issues of their existence and development. A survey of 478 high school students from 4 randomly selected school in Mashonaland and Matabeleland,Zimbabwe, was therefore conducted to evaluate the results of government and nongovernment organization educational strategies to educate youth and school teachers about HIV infectionand prevention. The sample included students from high and low density, government and mission coeducational schools, and was stratified to represent sex and grade level.Respondents were 50-85% accurate on factual knowledge about HIV infections and AIDS, yet only 2-9% of those who date think that their present partners may be infected with HIV.

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