tions we feel when others do bad things (anger,contempt, and disgust) or when we ourselves dobad things (shame, embarrassment, and guilt);however, there are only a few empirical studiesof the positive moral emotions, the emotions wefeel when others do good things (gratitude, ad-miration, and moral elevation; see Haidt, 2003).Despite these inequities, positive psycholo-gy’s aim is not the denial of the distressing,unpleasant, or negative aspects of life, nor is itan effort to see them through rose-coloredglasses. Those who study topics in positive psy-chology fully acknowledge the existence of hu-man suffering, selﬁshness, dysfunctional familysystems, and ineffective institutions. But theaim of positive psychology is to study the otherside of the coin—the ways that people feel joy,show altruism, and create healthy families andinstitutions—thereby addressing the full spec-trum of human experience. Moreover, positivepsychology makes the argument that these pos-itive topics of inquiry are important to under-stand in their own right, not solely as buffersagainst the problems, stressors, and disorders of life (although we believe the evidence is clearthat many positive processes shield us fromnegative outcomes, a point we return to later).Sheldon and King (2001) deﬁned positivepsychology as “nothing more than the scientiﬁcstudy of
human strengths and virtues,”one that “revisits the
person” (p. 216;italics added). In this deﬁnition is the acknowl-edgment that our ﬁeld as a whole is relativelysilent regarding what is typical, because what istypical
positive. Indeed, 9 of 10 Americansreport being “very happy” or “pretty happy”(Myers, 2000). And, contrary to the notion thatthis is unique to American soil, studies haveconsistently revealed that most people acrossthe globe score well above the neutral point onmeasures of life satisfaction (Diener & Diener,1996), and even people who many might as-sume would be very unsatisﬁed with their lives,such as slum dwellers in Calcutta, are actuallyquite satisﬁed with their lives (Biswas-Diener &Diener, 2001). Thus, despite the very real im-pact of the negative aspects of life documentedin the past few decades of psychological re-search, most people are doing well, and we, aspsychologists, tend to overlook the greater partof human experience and the majority of peo-ple, families, groups, and institutions.
Why a Positive Psychology
,and Why Now?
Why do we need a
in positivepsychology? The answer is straightforward. Thescience of psychology has made great strides inunderstanding what goes wrong in individuals,families, groups, and institutions, but these ad-vances have come at the cost of understandingwhat is right with people. For example, clinicalpsychology has made excellent progress in di-agnosing and treating mental illnesses and per-sonality disorders (e.g., American PsychiatricAssociation, 1994). Researchers in social psy-chology have conducted groundbreaking stud-ies on the existence of implicit prejudice andnegative outcomes associated with low self-esteem (e.g., Josephs, Bosson, & Jacobs, 2003;Wittenbrink, Judd, & Park, 1997). Health psy-chology has shown us the detrimental effectsthat environmental stressors have on our phys-iological systems (e.g., Dickerson & Kemeny,2004). And cognitive psychology has illumi-nated the many biases and errors involved in our judgments (e.g., Gilovich, Vallone, & Tversky,1985). These are all important ﬁndings in ourﬁeld, but it is harder to locate correspondingwork on human strengths and virtues.
So why has our ﬁeld been so much moreinterested in foibles than in strengths? We seethree reasons. The ﬁrst is compassion. Thosewho are suffering should be helped before thosewho are already doing well. We certainly agreewith this notion; however, we also think that anunderstanding of human strengths can actuallyhelp prevent or lessen the damage of disease,stress, and disorder. For example, research oncoping has demonstrated that appraisals of neg-ative life events that put them into perspectivewith one’s own capabilities for meeting thechallenge mediate the actual experience of dis-tress (e.g., Folkman & Lazarus, 1988). AndTaylor and colleagues (Taylor, Kemeny, Reed,Bower, & Gruenwald, 2000) have provided per-suasive evidence that beliefs such as optimismand a sense of personal control are protectivefactors for psychological and physical health.
One can point to inspiring work such as the jigsawclassroom of Aronson, Blaney, Stephan, Sikes, and Snapp(1978), which brought out the best in students, but suchcases are few and far between.105SPECIAL ISSUE: WHAT IS POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY?