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Electric Potential

# Electric Potential

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03/18/2014

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Purple Squirrel and Blue Angel

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THIS WEBSITE WILL BE CLOSED TO PREVENT TEACHERS COMING IN. IF YOU WANT TO HAVE ACCESS TO THE WEBSITE AFTER IT \u201cCLOSES\u201d YOU MUST REQUEST US TO ADD YOU AS FRIENDS.

LEGEND IN EQUATIONS (WORK SHOWN):
BLUE\u2014COMMON NUMBERS (same for everyone)
GREEN\u2014FOUND IN EXPLANATION

1. Suppose that the electric potential outside a living cell is higher than that inside the
cell by0.076 V. How much work is done by the electric force when a sodium ion
(charge = +e) moves from the outside to the inside?

The question says the electric potential. The electric potential is the same thing as
saying \u0394V (measured in volts). If you read the chapter in page 560 it says that:

\u0394V = -WAB/ qo
The charge that it talks about is about a positive electron, which is different than a
negative electron but they have the same charge:

1.6\u00d710-19 C
Since you have the change in electric potential, and the charge, you can solve for
work.
\u0394V \u00d7 qo = W
Plug the numbers in:
.076\u00d7 (1.6\u00d710-19 ) =1 . 2 1 6 \u00d71 0-20 C

2. Just as you touch a metal door knob, a spark of electricity (electrons) jumps from
your hand to the knob. The electric potential of the knob is3.0 104V greater than
that of your hand. The work done by the electric force on the electrons is1.5 10-7J.
How many electrons jump from your hand to the knob?

In this problem they give you the \u0394V and the Work done by the electrons. The only
variable missing is the charge. Solve for the charge:

\u0394V = W/q
\u0394V \u00d7 q = W
q = W / \u0394V

Plug the numbers in:
(1.5\u00d710-7 )\u00d7(3.0 \u00d7 104) =5\u00d710-12 C
With the charge you can use the charge of a single electron to find the number of
electrons that \u201cjumped\u201d to your hand.
5\u00d710-12 C/ 1 . 6 \u00d71 0-19= 3 1 2 50000 electro n s
3. The anode (positive terminal) of an X-ray tube is at a potential of +105000 V with
respect to the cathode (negative terminal).
(a)How much work (in joules) is done by the electric force when an electron is
accelerated from the cathode to the anode?
(b) If the electron is initially at rest, what kinetic energy does the electron have when it
arrives at the anode?
Question 3. Part a, says: How muchw ork (in joules) is done by the electric force whenan
electron\u2026\u2026

Again, like the previous questions you are going to have to use the \u0394V equation. (*Note: \u0394V
has many different expressions but for these problems we are using the \u0394V= W / q)
You have the change in electric potential and the charge of an electron, you can use those
to plug them in to the equation:

\u0394V = W / q
therefore:
\u0394V \u00d7 q = W
Plug the numbers in:
(105000 ) \u00d7(1.6 \u00d7 10-19)= 1.68 \u00d7 10-14 Joules

In part (b) the question asks for the kinetic energy when the electron arrives at the anode. If you look in the book in page 563, Figure 19.6 you see the TOTAL ENERGY that an object can have. If you take that equation and use the Ef=Eo you will see that almost all of the \u201cterms\u201d in the equation go away and you are left with:

1/2mvf2 = EPE

This is due to the fact that the right side of the equation is the initial energy, since the
electron is at rest it doesn\u2019t have any kinetic, since it can\u2019t rotate (going in a straight line) it
doesn\u2019t have rotational energy, (we ignore gravity), and no elastic forces are present.