having to change external schema for example adding a new field to a
record. An application program's view hides this change from the program,
Columns could be added to tables without changing the existing external
schema or application programs Changes here necessitate changes to the
changing conceptual schema for example changing from unblocked to blocked record storage, or from sequential to random-access files, the internal schema may be changed when certain file structures are reorganized or new indexes are created to improve database performance, DBA decides it is more efficient to store the data in a B+ tree instead of a heap, so changes the internal schema then he changes the mapping to the conceptual schema and conceptual schema remains unchanged.
Database administration involves activities related to database management and control. Broadly, a database administrator must ensure that the database is available to users at all times. Database administration includes data back-up and recovery, performance tuning and analysis and to some extent may include database design. The exact administration tasks would depend on the kind of database being administered and prevailing information technology policies of the organization.
The latest trends in database administration would suggest that most of the routine tasks of back-up is being accomplished by the software itself. However disaster recovery and performance tuning, still remains within the scope of human involvement.
A Database administrator's primary task is to install database server and other application tools associated with databases. This may entail knowledge of the kind of hardware on which the database is to be installed. It is important to understand the hardware requirements since it would directly impact on the uptime of the database. Data requires enormous amount of storage capacity. There is a constant need to add storage capacity as the volume of data increases. This is one of the prime tasks of a database administrator. A good database design would take into consideration future storage requirements and accordingly cater for it. A database administrator has to create primary database storage structures after application developers have designed an application.
Database administrators have to work in a dynamic environment. Database security may be compromised either by malicious intrusions or inadvertently. To ensure maintainability and uptime database performance tuning has to be carried out. One of the major tasks is to take constant back-up of data. Back-up can be performed both at the hardware level as well as from the database itself. More frequent the backups, more the validity of the restored data. Database recovery in case of emergency is critical to any business and commercial database.
Database administration is a critical operation in database management. Some of the routine administration tasks are being automated and performed automatically by the system itself. Performance monitoring and tuning is a continuous ongoing task of a database administrator. Data after all is at the heart of any database management system. Data corruption or data loss may be malicious or unintentional. Constant backup of data is necessary to restore data in case of disasters.
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